Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: femtosecond laser; birefringence; stress; sapphire
Online: 23 August 2019 (09:49:21 CEST)
Birefringence of 3 × 10-3 is demonstrated inside cross-sectional regions of 100 µm, inscribed by axially stretched Bessel-beam-like fs-laser pulses along the c-axis inside sapphire. A high birefringence and retardance of λ/4 at mid-visible spectral range (green) can be achieved utilizing stretched beams with an axial extension of 30-40 µm. Conditions of laser writing chosen ensure that there are no formations of self-organised nano-gratings. This method can be adopted for the creation of polarisation optical elements and fabrication of spatially varying birefringent patterns for optical vortex generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0178.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: Selective Laser Etching; 3D Laser Microfabrication; Crystals Microprocessing; Sapphire 3D structures; Femtosecond Laser Microprocessing
Online: 12 October 2022 (10:44:31 CEST)
Transparent and high-hardness materials have become the object of wide interest. Most notably, it concerns technical glasses and crystals. A notable example is a sapphire – one of the most rigid materials having impressive mechanical stability and good optical properties. Nonetheless, using this material for 3D micro-fabrication is not straightforward due to its brittle nature. On the microscale, selective laser etching (SLE) technology is an appropriate approach for such media. Therefore, we present our research on c-cut crystalline sapphire microprocessing by using femtosecond radiation-induced SLE. Here we demonstrate a comparison between different wavelength radiation (1030 nm, 515 nm, 343 nm) usage for modification inscription and various etchants (Hydrofloridic acid, Sodium Hydroxide, Potassium Hydroxide and Sulphuric and Phosphoric acid mixture) comparison. We show that regular SLE etchants such as Hydrofluoric acid or Potassium Hydroxide are unsuitable materials for selective sapphire laser etching. Meanwhile, a 78% sulphuric and 22% phosphoric acid mixture at 270°C temperature is a good alternative for this process. We present the changes in the material after the separate processing steps. Finally, a protocol for advanced sapphire structure formation and a few exemplary structures are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0125.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: GaN ultraviolet photodetector; periodic trapezoid column-shape patterned sapphire substrate; responsivity; UV-to-visible rejection ratio
Online: 18 October 2016 (08:19:48 CEST)
GaN ultraviolet photodetector with metal-semiconductor-metal structure is achieved by growing on a periodic trapezoid column-shape patterned sapphire substrate using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Under 5-V reverse bias, the photodetector fabricated on such patterned sapphire substrate exhibits a lower dark current, a higher photocurrent, and a 476 % enhancement in the maximum responsivity as compare with those of the photodetector fabricated on conventional flat sapphire substrate. It is also found that the much larger UV-to-visible rejection ratio and the fact that responsivity drops in a smaller cut-off region are observed from photodetector fabricated by using a periodic trapezoid column-shape patterned sapphire substrate. These phenomena may all be attributed to the reduction of threading dislocation density and the improved quality of GaN film, as well as the internal reflection and/or scattering effect on the interface between GaN film and the periodic trapezoid column-shape pattern of the substrate.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0444.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: radioactive waste; radioactive waste processing; radioactive waste disposal; trinitite; radioactive gemstones; radioactive corundum; radioactive sapphire; radioactive ruby
Online: 25 January 2023 (04:14:53 CET)
The possibility of making precious stones from radioactive waste is being considered. Vitrified and cemented radioactive waste (RW) is considered as an artificial rock belonging to aluminosilicates and calcites. Two methods are proposed for the manufacture of radioactive gemstones from RW and their subsequent storage with the possibility of sale, resale, inheritance, and so on. That is, RW is considered as real estate in which capital can be invested. After decontamination in hundreds and thousands of years, it will be of scientific, historical, jewelry interest.