ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0691.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Electric bus; bus network; simulation; scheduling; charging infrastructure; depot charging; opportunity charging; optimisation; genetic algorithm; TCO
Online: 29 July 2020 (10:38:58 CEST)
Bus operators around the world are facing the transformation of their fleets from fossil-fuelled to electric buses. Two technologies prevail: Depot charging and opportunity charging at terminal stops. Total cost of ownership (TCO) is an important metric for the decision between the two technologies, however, most TCO studies for electric bus systems rely on generalised route data and simplifying assumptions that may not reflect local conditions. In particular, the need to re-schedule vehicle operations to satisfy electric buses’ range and charging time constraints is commonly disregarded. We present a simulation tool based on discrete-event simulation to determine the vehicle, charging infrastructure, energy and staff demand required to electrify real-world bus networks. These results are then passed to a TCO model. A greedy scheduling algorithm is developed to plan vehicle schedules suitable for electric buses. Scheduling and simulation are coupled with a genetic algorithm to determine cost-optimised charging locations for opportunity charging. A case study is carried out in which we analyse the electrification of a metropolitan bus network consisting of 39 lines with 4748 passenger trips per day. The results generally favour opportunity charging over depot charging in terms of TCO, however, under some circumstances, the technologies are on par. This emphasises the need for detailed analysis of the local bus network in order to make an informed procurement decision.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0042.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: improvement; opportunity; people; perspectives; society; sustainability
Online: 8 June 2017 (12:47:03 CEST)
Development and sustainable development are two concepts gaining the attention of scholars, historians and policy makers in recent times. This is because they represent what people and societies across the world today sincerely desired. Every human being or human society deserve improvement in quality of livelihood, health care system, access to food, housing, security, clothing and many other indices of development in a sustainable manner. Based on this momentum, this paper examines the nexus between development and sustainable development. The paper is divided into four sections. The first section spots the conceptual issue woven around the term development as well as sustainable development in literature. The second section clarifies the two concepts (development and sustainable development) and the main perspectives on development were discussed. It also identifies the common and distinctive features between the concept of development and sustainable development. The third section then presents a conceptual framework of analysis on the nexus of between development and sustainable development. Finally, the paper concludes that the duos (development and sustainable development) are two-side of a coin and they complement each other. This is due to the fact that development is people oriented hence it must be sustainable so as to ensure that the advancement of current generation does not deny future generation the opportunity to develop.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0334.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: scoring opportunity identification; proprioceptive shooting volume; 0 possession shot; airborne; anthropometry
Online: 14 December 2020 (13:12:20 CET)
From a scientific standpoint, both temporal and spatial variables must be examined when developing programs for training various soccer scoring techniques (SSTs), but a review of current literature reveals that existing scientific studies have overlooked this combinatory influence. Consequently, there is no reliable theory on temporal-spatial identification when evaluating scoring opportunities. Quantified by using biomechanical modeling, anthropometry, and SSTs found in FIFA Puskás Award (121 nominated goals between 2009 and 2020), it is found that players’ proprioceptive/effective shooting volume (i.e. players’ attack space) could be sevenfold the currently-practiced shooting volume. The ignorance of some SSTs’ training leads to the underuse of the potential shooting volume. These overlooked SSTs are airborne and/or acrobatic techniques, perceived as high-risk and low-reward. Relying on the talent of an athlete to improvise on the fly can hardly be considered as a viable coaching strategy. Therefore, for developing science-based SST training regimes, groundbreaking studies are needed to: 1) expand the perception of shooting volume, and 2) entrain one-touch-shot techniques (airborne/acrobatic) within this volume, in short, Focusing-on-Time-in-Space. Whence, the new temporal-spatial theory could guide future researches and develop novel training programs. An increase of airborne/acrobatic goals would ultimately further enhance the excitement of the game.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0435.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: missed opportunity for immunisation; immunization defaulters; vaccination; World Health Organization; immunization coverage
Online: 23 August 2021 (12:20:18 CEST)
The two major global immunisation agenda framings (Missed Opportunity for Immunisation, MOI vs Immunisation Defaulting) are interchangeably and inappropriately used in public health research and practice with flawed or misleading strategies recommended and adopted in various settings globally. This is evident in the fact that many opportunities to adopt evidence/findings from immunisation coverage research in policy are grossly missed. Ineffectiveness of inappropriate interventions from biased evidence can discourage and mislead the governance to make radical decisions by discretion. This could be the reason for the inability of low-and middle-income countries to vaccinate 80% of their children and otherwise; this also poses a global health threat to capable nations. The current guideline and information on MOI and immunisation defaulting appear insufficient and a little clarification on it would assist forerunners in immunisation to achieve measurable progress in ensuring good coverage especially in low-and middle-income countries. Consequently, this paper is aimed at addressing this issue in immunisation practice with appropriate recommendations. Optimistically, this will stimulate further discussions, streamline differences, and gear global immunisation governance on the subject matter, to achieve the target coverage by 2030 in low-and middle-income countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0389.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: human mobility; residential mobility; smart card; public transportation; opportunity cost of travel time
Online: 26 September 2018 (05:46:51 CEST)
This study attempts to investigate a method for creating an index from mobility data that not only correlates with the number of people who relocate to a place but also has causal influence on the number of such individuals. By creating an index based on human mobility data, it becomes possible to predict the influence of urban development on future residential movements. In this paper, we propose a method called the travel cost method for multiple places (TCM4MP) by extending the conventional travel cost method (TCM). We assume that the opportunity cost of travel time on non-working days reflects the convenience and amenities of a neighborhood. However, conventional TCM does not assume that the opportunity cost of travel time varies according to the departure place. In this paper, TCM4MP is proposed to estimate the opportunity cost of travel time with respect to the departure place. We consider such estimation to be possible due to the use of massive mobility data. We assume that the opportunity cost of travel time on non-working days reflects the convenience and amenities of the neighborhood. Therefore, we consider that the opportunity cost of travel time has a causal influence on future residential mobility. In this paper, the validity of the proposed method is tested using the smart card data of public transportation in Western Japan. Our proposed method is beneficial for urban planners in estimating the effects of urban development and detecting the shrinkage and growth of a population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0004.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: weighted dissimilarity measure; feature-based indoor positioning; signals of opportunity; location-dependent standard deviation
Online: 3 June 2019 (08:37:55 CEST)
We propose an iterative scheme for feature-based positioning using a new weighted dissimilarity measure with the goal of reducing the impact of large errors among the measured or modeled features. The weights are computed from the location-dependent standard deviations of the features and stored as part of the reference fingerprint map (RFM). Spatial filtering and kernel smoothing of the kinematically collected raw data allow efficiently estimating the standard deviations during RFM generation. In the positioning stage, the weights control the contribution of each feature to the dissimilarity measure, which in turn quantifies the difference between the set of online measured features and the fingerprints stored in the RFM. Features with little variability contribute more to the estimated position than features with high variability. Iterations are necessary because the variability depends on the location, and the location is initially unknown when estimating the position. Using real WiFi signal strength data from extended test measurements with ground truth in an office building, we show that the standard deviations of these features vary considerably within the region of interest and are neither simple functions of the signal strength nor of the distances from the corresponding access points. This is the motivation to include the empirical standard deviations in the RFM. We then analyze the deviations of the estimated positions with and without the location-dependent weighting. In the present example the maximum radial positioning error from ground truth are reduced by 40% comparing to kNN without the weighted dissimilarity measure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0116.v1
Subject: Keywords: environmental benefits and costs, revealed preference, hedonic pricing, travel cost, trade-off game, opportunity cost
Online: 8 July 2019 (12:32:10 CEST)
The objective of this paper was to give an overview of the expressed preference (EP) techniques of environmental valuation. These methods offer estimation of the value of a resource not necessarily willingness to pay (WTP) or willingness to Accept (WTA) compensation rather upper and lower values. The method of measuring individuals’ willingness to pay is usually based on contingent valuation method (CVM). This research focuses on defining, categorizing, and applicability of various environmental valuation techniques that have been and can be applied in attaching value to a given resource using expressed/Revealed preference methods. The study serves as a supplementary synthesis and discussion to the board of knowledge of resource valuation methods. More specifically, selected methods to discussed herein include; contingent valuation method, hedonic pricing model, travel cost method, trade-off game method, the costless-choice method, Delphi method, Replacement Cost Method, Relocation Cost Method, Opportunity cost method, and Cost-benefit Method. In the last part, applicability of the methods is fully illustrated to support future studies on resource valuation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0431.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Resilience; Risky-Opportunity Analysis Method (ROAM); Socio-Ecological Transition; Socio-Technical Transition; Cyber-Physic-Social Systems; Change Management; Risk Management; Critical Infrastructure Resilience; Critical Entities Digitization; Risky-Opportunity (RO); Payment Service Providers (PSP); Stress; Strain
Online: 28 October 2021 (10:13:39 CEST)
Socio-ecologic, socio-economic, and socio-technical transitions are opportunities that require fundamental changes in the system. These will encounter matters associated with security, service adoption by end-users, infrastructure and availability. The purpose of this study is to examine and overcome the risks to take advantage of opportunities through the novel Risky-Opportunity Analysis Method (ROAM). A novel quantitative method is designed to determine when, after making some changes, the risks become acceptable so that the opportunity does not deviate from the objectives. The approach provided a quantitative evaluation of the possible changes in parallel with digitization, towards providing a green Service Supply Chain (SSC). The result of ROAM shows that the most cost-effective change to increase the resilience of the system is a solution (SMS) which is different from that identified by a TOPSIS multi-criteria method. Real-word decisions in change management should tackle the complexity of systems and uncertainty of events during and after transition through a careful analysis of the alternatives. A case-study was carried out to evaluate the alternatives of an ancillary service in the Payment Service Providers (PSP). The comparison of the ROAM results with the traditional TOPSIS of the case-study unveils the priority of the ROAM in practice when the alternatives are Risky-Opportunities. The existing risk assessment tools do not take advantage of risky opportunities. To this aim, the current article introduces the term Risky-Opportunity, and two indexes Stress and Strain of the alternatives that are designed to be employed in the new quantitative ROAM approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0286.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Urban resilience; Physical elements of a city; Indicator groups; Linear programming; Maximum resilience profit; Optimal investment; Opportunity costs
Online: 20 October 2021 (10:03:39 CEST)
This paper reviews the low-resilience problem in many cities, poor designs of cities to cope with disasters, and the need for tolerance of urban constructions. It explores answers concerning the question of how shall we build cities resiliently? The method of this applied research is a multiphase process that considers all physical and socioeconomic elements of a city. It introduces six indicator groups of urban management (M), economy (E), built environments (U), Infrastructures (I), natural environments (N), and health protection (H). The groups include 55 indicators as variables in the mathematical calculations in this paper. This paper builds a mathematical model to maximize the profitability of resilient buildings by optimizing investments in the required projects. The projects will upgrade the firmness and tolerance of cities against nature-based and human-made dangers and risks. There is a linear programming in 55 variables to select optimal solutions from fifty-five factorial alternatives. Then, the programming will develop into non-linear programming. The unique innovation of this paper is its linear programming interpretation by non-linear to give optimal solutions for the problem. Applying the Lagrange function in the Kuhn-Tucker conditions proves the accuracy of the hypothesis that post-COVID urbanization requires maximum resilience. Only in this way, the urban economies will be free of risks. Outcomes in this paper will assist in the pre-planning, design, and building of built environments everywhere resilient and sustainable.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0137.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: opportunity; challenge; perspective; health data; disease prediction; clinical outcome prediction; healthcare process; data quality; quantity and quality analysis; artificial intelligence
Online: 8 June 2018 (13:22:08 CEST)
Health information technology has been widely used in healthcare, which has contributed a huge amount of data. Health data has four characteristics: high volume; high velocity; high variety and high value. Thus, they can be leveraged to i) discover associations between genes, diseases and drugs to implement precision medicine; ii) predict diseases and identify their corresponding causal factors to prevent or control the diseases at an earlier time; iii) learn risk factors related to clinical outcomes (e.g., patients’ unplanned readmission), to improve care quality and reduce healthcare expenditure; and iv) discover care coordination patterns representing good practice in the implementation of collaborative patient-centered care. At the same time, there are major challenges existing in data-driven healthcare research, which include: i) inefficient health data exchanges across different sources; ii) learned knowledge is biased to specific institution; iii) inefficient strategies to evaluate plausibility of the learned patterns and v) incorrect interpretation and translation of the learned patterns. In this paper, we review various types of health data, discuss opportunities and challenges existing in the data-driven healthcare research, provide solutions to solve the challenges, and state the important role of the data-driven healthcare research in the establishment of smart healthcare system.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0341.v2
Subject: Keywords: Impact of COVID on TB; TB Notification in India; Integrated TB COVID Activity; Threats and Opportunity during COVID; Initiatives to improve TB Surveillance; TB Surveillance during COVID Pandemic
Online: 22 June 2021 (14:05:04 CEST)
Introduction: Due to COVID-19 pandemic, performance of many program has been declined and Tuberculosis (TB) program is not an exception. TB case detection and notification has been recognized as one of worst hit area. The objective of this study was to explore the TB notification status of India during this pandemic and explore options to mitigate the issue. Methods: A secondary data analysis was performed on open source TB notification database of India. Relevant literature review was done to find out remedies based on the different initiative taken by different states of India. Results: In 2020, total TB notification decreased in all the states in comparison to 2019. The percentage of loss in the country was 34%. Private TB notification also decreased in 2020 in all the states except in Jharkhand. The percentage of loss in private TB notification in the country was 35%. Notification started declining in the month of February 2020 and it was lowest in the month of April-2020. The trend of notification began to improve since May 2020 when the States started taking innovative initiatives like Integrated TB Covid Case Search. Conclusion: Due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic the notifications of TB cases declined noticeably which has a serious implication in terms of silent spread within household and community. But the picture can be improved with integrated approach for TB-COVID case finding and management.