Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: heavy metals; oligodendrocytes; myelination; lipid formation; intracellular calcium regulation
Online: 1 August 2019 (04:47:18 CEST)
Evidence has been accumulated demonstrating that heavy metals may accumulate in various organs leading to tissue damage and toxic effects in mammals. In particular, the Central Nervous System (CNS) seems to be particularly vulnerable to cumulative concentrations of heavy metals, though the pathophysiological mechanisms is still to be clarified. In particular the potential role of oligodendrocyte dysfunction and myelin production after exposure to subtoxic concentration of heavy metals is to be better assessed. Here we investigated on the effect of sub-toxic concentration of several essential (Cu2 +, Cr3+, Ni2+, Co2+) and non-essential (Pb2+, Cd2+, Al3+) heavy metals on MO3.13 and SHSY5Y human oligodendrocyte and neuronal cell lines (grown individually or in co-culture). In particular, exposure of both cell lines to heavy metals produced a reduced cell viability of co-cultured cell lines compared to cells grown separately. This effect was more pronounced in neurons which were more sensitive to metals than oligodendrocytes when the cells were grown in co-culture. On the other hand, a significant reduction of lipid component in cells occurred after their exposure to heavy metals, an effect accompanied by substantial reduction of the main protein that makes up myelin (MBP) in co-cultured cells. Finally, the effect of heavy metals in oligodendrocytes were associated to imbalanced intracellular calcium ion concentration as measured through the fluorescent Rhod-2 probe, thus confirming that heavy metals, even used at subtoxic concentrations, lead to dysfunctional oligodendrocytes. In conclusion, our data show, for the first time, that sub-toxic concentrations of several heavy metals lead to dysfunctional oligodendrocytes, an effect highlighted when these cells are co-cultured with neurons. The pathophysiological mechanism(s) underlying this effect is to be better clarified. However, imbalanced intracellular calcium ion regulation, altered lipid formation and, finally, imbalanced myelin formation seem to play a major role in early stages of heavy metal-related oligodendrocyte dysfunction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0593.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Oligodendrocytes; Myelination; Endoplasmic Reticulum; Unfolded Protein Response; Heavy metals; alcohol
Online: 28 October 2020 (14:08:14 CET)
Oligodendrocytes are myelinating cells of the central nervous system, which are generated by progenitor oligodendrocytes as a result of maturation processes. The main function of mature oligodendrocytes is to produce myelin, a lipid-rich multi-lamellar membrane that wraps tightly around neuronal axons, isolating them and facilitating nerve conduction through saltatory propagation. The myelination process requires the consumption of a lot of energy and a high metabolic turnover. Mitochondria are essential organelles which regulate many cellular functions including the energy production through oxidative phosphorylation. Any mitochondrial dysfunction impacts cellular metabolism and negatively affects the health of the organism. If the functioning of the mitochondria is unbalanced the myelination process is impaired. At the end of myelination, oligodendrocytes synthesize about 40% of the total lipids present in the brain. Since lipid synthesis occurs in the cellular endoplasmic reticulum, the alteration of this organelle can lead to partial or deficient myelination, triggering numerous neurodegenerative diseases. In this review the main dysfunctions of oligodendrocytes caused by exogenous or endogenous stimuli will be investigated. Furthermore, the oligodendrocyte reactions to excessive mitochondrial oxidative stress and an altered regulation of the functioning of the endoplasmic reticulum will be discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0407.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: glial cells; astrocytes; NG2 glia; microglia; oligodendrocytes; Alzheimer’s disease; neurodegenerative disease; Aβ-peptides
Online: 14 September 2018 (03:13:57 CEST)
Even though Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is of significant interest to the scientific community, its pathogenesis is very complicated and not well-understood. A great deal of progress has been made in AD research recently and with the advent of these new insights more therapeutic benefits may be identified that could help patients around the world. Much of the research in AD thus far has been very neuron-oriented; however, recent studies suggest that glial cells, i.e., microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (NG2 glia), are linked to the pathogenesis of AD and may offer several potential therapeutic targets against AD. In addition to a number of other functions, glial cells are responsible for maintaining homeostasis (i.e., concentration of ions, neurotransmitters, etc.) within the central nervous system (CNS) and are crucial to the structural integrity of neurons. This review explores the: (i) role of glial cells in AD pathogenesis; (ii) complex functionalities of the components involved; and (iii) potential therapeutic targets that could eventually lead to a better quality of life for AD patients