Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Environmental and Nutritional “Stressors” and Oligodendrocyte Dysfunction: Role of Mitochondrial and Endoplasmatic Reticulum Impairment

Version 1 : Received: 27 October 2020 / Approved: 28 October 2020 / Online: 28 October 2020 (14:08:14 CET)

How to cite: Maiuolo, J.; Gliozzi, M.; Musolino, V.; Carresi, C.; Nucera, S.; Scicchitano, M.; Scarano, F.; Bosco, F.; Oppedisano, F.; Macrì, R.; Ruga, S.; Zito, M.C.; Palma, E.; Mollace, V. Environmental and Nutritional “Stressors” and Oligodendrocyte Dysfunction: Role of Mitochondrial and Endoplasmatic Reticulum Impairment. Preprints 2020, 2020100593 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0593.v1). Maiuolo, J.; Gliozzi, M.; Musolino, V.; Carresi, C.; Nucera, S.; Scicchitano, M.; Scarano, F.; Bosco, F.; Oppedisano, F.; Macrì, R.; Ruga, S.; Zito, M.C.; Palma, E.; Mollace, V. Environmental and Nutritional “Stressors” and Oligodendrocyte Dysfunction: Role of Mitochondrial and Endoplasmatic Reticulum Impairment. Preprints 2020, 2020100593 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0593.v1).

Abstract

Oligodendrocytes are myelinating cells of the central nervous system, which are generated by progenitor oligodendrocytes as a result of maturation processes. The main function of mature oligodendrocytes is to produce myelin, a lipid-rich multi-lamellar membrane that wraps tightly around neuronal axons, isolating them and facilitating nerve conduction through saltatory propagation. The myelination process requires the consumption of a lot of energy and a high metabolic turnover. Mitochondria are essential organelles which regulate many cellular functions including the energy production through oxidative phosphorylation. Any mitochondrial dysfunction impacts cellular metabolism and negatively affects the health of the organism. If the functioning of the mitochondria is unbalanced the myelination process is impaired. At the end of myelination, oligodendrocytes synthesize about 40% of the total lipids present in the brain. Since lipid synthesis occurs in the cellular endoplasmic reticulum, the alteration of this organelle can lead to partial or deficient myelination, triggering numerous neurodegenerative diseases. In this review the main dysfunctions of oligodendrocytes caused by exogenous or endogenous stimuli will be investigated. Furthermore, the oligodendrocyte reactions to excessive mitochondrial oxidative stress and an altered regulation of the functioning of the endoplasmic reticulum will be discussed.

Subject Areas

Oligodendrocytes; Myelination; Endoplasmic Reticulum; Unfolded Protein Response; Heavy metals; alcohol

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