ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0395.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: physical activity; elderly population; chronic pain; mediastinal lymphomas
Online: 30 December 2019 (09:44:54 CET)
Thoracotomy is one of the most painful types of incision a patient can experience. Pain is a very complex pathophysiological entity. Neuronal pathophysiological mechanisms are integrated with the immunological response, which amplify inflammation and pain. Prolonged inflammation induces a pathological response of the immune-system and constantly stimulate the nociceptive pathways generating chronic pain. The mechanisms are particularly altered in lymphomas, where pain following chest surgery often becomes chronic and reduces the quality of life. In this study 51 elderly patients who had undergone a transthoracic biopsy to verify the suspect of mediastinal lymphoma were examined for pain reduction with oral opioids, effect of epidural analgesia and paravertebral block. Subsequently, patients underwent tensed torsion exercises, progressively intensified. After the first few days, patients walked progressively for 20 minutes a day. Once discharged a program of patients started aerobic exercises to increase muscle endurance and to strengthen the extensor muscles of the legs and of the upper limbs. The systemic administration of opioids is the simplest and most common method of providing analgesia for postoperative pain, but early mobilization, respiratory rehabilitation, and muscle toning exercises are excellent support devices both for physical and psychological recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0394.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: physical activity; elderly population; mediastinal lymphomas; cardiac transplantation
Online: 30 December 2019 (09:35:38 CET)
The incidence of post transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) and other neoplasms in organ transplant patients is higher than in the non-transplanted population. This event is more frequent in older subjects, due, at least in part, to the immune dysfunction induced by immunosuppressants administered to prevent rejection. Alterations of the immune system mechanisms of protection against carcinogenesis appear to be the key role in the in the pathogenesis of these neoplasms. The data of our study on the incidence of neoplasms occurred during a long-term follow-up in an elderly population after they underwent cardiac transplantation. This study gives, also evidence of the favorable effect of physical activity programs on cardiorespiratory and psychomotor function.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0103.v1
Subject: Keywords: lung adenocarcinoma; papillary thyroid carcinoma; mediastinal lymph nodes; lymphadenectomy
Online: 7 May 2020 (02:30:36 CEST)
In the surgical treatment of lung cancer, systemic mediastinal lymph node dissection, as one important routine procedure, has been accepted by most peers in the world. However, due to the special location of some mediastinal lymph nodes, the difficulty of dissection, and the negative preoperative CT results, the specific scope of lymph node dissection is still controversial. Especially the second group, which is located at the top of thorax, is likely to be overlooked for the above reasons. Here, we report a case of lung adenocarcinoma in which the preoperative CT showed no abnormal lymph nodes in the second group and also no enlarged lymph nodes of the second group were found during the surgery, yet lymphadenectomy was still performed according the routine with the lymph node of station 2 being sampled. In the postoperative pathological report, cancer cells were found in the second group, instead of lung adenocarcinoma, these cells come from thyroid and were proved to be papillary thyroid carcinoma, which is unusual because no obvious indication of thyroid carcinoma was found in preoperative color doppler ultrasound of superficial lymph nodes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0420.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: anterior mediastinal lesions; diffusion weighted imaging; diffusion magnetic resonance imaging; gadolinium; thyroma; lymphoma; thymus neoplasms; biopsy
Online: 30 June 2022 (08:19:29 CEST)
Background. To describe the characteristics of anterior mediastinal masses on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to assess the role of the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) value in distinguishing benign from malignant mediastinal lesions. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study on 55 patients with anterior mediastinal mass who performed MRI before treatment. Biopsy and histopathological assessments were done after that. A radiologist evaluates the changes of signal intensity on these sequences: T1- weighted VIBE DIXON pre and post-contrast with Gadolinium, T2 HASTE, T2 TIRM, DWI/ADC, to determine the size, margin of the lesion, the presence of fat, cystic in it. ADCs values were calculated from the ADC maps which were constructed from b = 0 and b = 2000 Results. The study was composed of 55 patients, with 5 benign lesions and 50 malignant lesions. The ADCmean, ADCmedian, ADC10, and ADC90 in the histogram-based approach and hot-spot-ROI-based mean ADC for the malignant lesions was significantly lower than those found in benign lesions (P-value <0.05). The hot-spot-ROI-based mean ADC had the highest value in differentiation between benign and malignant mediastinal lesions, between group A (benign lesions, thymoma A, AB, B1) and group B (thymoma B2, B3 and other malignant lesions). The cut-off point of the ADC value differentiating malignant from benign mediastinal lesions was 1,17x10-3mm2/s with sensitivity of 80%, and specificity of 80%. The cut off point of the ADC value differentiating group A from group B was 0.99 x10-3mm2/s with sensitivity of 78,4%, and specificity of 88.9%. The cut-off point of the ADC value differentiating lymphoma from other malignant lesions was 0,91 x10-3mm2/s with sensitivity of 100%, and specificity of 60.5%. Conclusion. Diffusion-weighted MRI and measurement of ADC value in histogram-based approach and hot-spot-ROI-based mean ADC are very helpful in the differentiation between benign and malignant anterior mediastinal lesions.