COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0529.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: daylight; luminance; measurement system; sky luminance; lighting applications; optical metrology
Online: 22 March 2021 (12:12:01 CET)
The purpose of this work is to determine the possibility of using an automated SkyWatcher Virtuoso system to analyze distribution of sky luminance. The article presents the procedure for measuring the sky luminance distribution defined according to CIE using a manual luminance meter cooperating with the SkyWatcher system. The use of matrix luminance meter was also analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0165.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Helmholtz-Kohlrausch effect; luminance; brightness; saturation; contraception; menstrual cycle; hormones
Online: 12 July 2022 (03:53:09 CEST)
Saturated lights appear brighter than white lights of the same luminance. This phenomenon is known as the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (H-K) effect and can be estimated by modeling achromatic luminance and saturation to total brightness. These models have been shown to differ between women and men and are more variable in women. The variation in brightness models among women may be due to hormonal changes across the menstrual cycle. To test this, total brightness and achromatic luminance were measured across blue, green, yellow-green, yellow, and red hues. These data were measured along with salivary hormone levels for nine cycling women at points representing the menstrual, peri-ovulation, and luteal phases. These data were also collected for seven oral contraceptive (OC) users. There were no main effects of OC use nor menstrual cycle phase on B/L ratios, but ratios were higher for the red stimulus in cycling women than OC users. Red B/L ratios were also higher for cycling women than OC users during the luteal phase. Estrogen, progesterone, and their interaction predicted 18% of the variation in brightness for cycling women. These models could not be fit for OC users, and estrogen only accounted for 5% of brightness variance with progesterone terms omitted. These findings and potential mechanisms are discussed in the context of previous results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0228.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: EEG; luminance; brightness; IAPS; STFT; feature extraction; visual processing; emotion
Online: 22 August 2019 (03:43:25 CEST)
The aim of this study was to examine brightness effect, which is the perceptual property of visual stimuli, on brain responses obtained during visual processing of these stimuli. For this purpose, brain responses of the brain to changes in brightness were explored comparatively using different emotional images (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral) with different luminance levels. Moreover, electroencephalography recordings from 12 different electrode sites of 31 healthy participants were used. The power spectra obtained from the analysis of the recordings using short time Fourier transform were analyzed, and a statistical analysis was performed on features extracted from these power spectra. Statistical findings obtained from electrophysiological data were compared with those obtained from behavioral data. The results showed that the brightness of visual stimuli affected the power of brain responses depending on frequency, time and location. According to the statistically verified findings, the distinctive effect of brightness occurred in the parietal and occipital regions for all the three types of stimuli. Accordingly, the increase in the brightness of pleasant and neutral images increased the average power of responses in the parietal and occipital regions whereas the increase in the brightness of unpleasant images decreased the average power of responses in these regions. However, the increase in brightness for all the three types of stimuli reduced the average power of frontal and central region responses (except for 100-300 ms time window for unpleasant stimuli). The statistical results obtained for unpleasant images were found to be in accordance with the behavioral data. The results also revealed that the brightness of visual stimuli could be represented by changing the activity power of the brain cortex. The main contribution of this research was to comprehensively examine brightness effect on brain activity for images with different emotional content and different frequency bands at different time windows of visual processing for different brain regions. The findings emphasized that the brightness of visual stimuli should be viewed as an important parameter in studies using emotional image techniques such as image classification, emotion evaluation and neuro-marketing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0014.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: phototactic response; Mythimna separata; LED; wavelength; attraction rate; luminance intensity; sensitivity
Online: 5 May 2019 (11:18:56 CEST)
Recently, light traps using light-emitting diode (LED) lights have been applied to monitor or control insect pests. The oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata Walker, is an important insect pest that has caused damage to several cereal crops, including corn, wheat and rice. The present study aims to seek out a sensitive wavelength causing high phototactic response in M. separata. The study evaluated the phototactic responses of M. separata moths to several LED lights of different wavelengths and luminance intensities under laboratory condition. Results showed that green (520 nm) LED light resulted in significant phototactic response of M. separata moths compared to LED lights of other wavelengths. Additionally, the highest attraction rate of the moths to green LED light appeared in luminance intensity group of 200 lux compared to the other intensities groups. Experiments under optimum conditions based on the above experiments revealed that the green LED light exhibited the strongest attraction rate (64.44%) among all experimental groups. An experiment performed in a net cage also showed that green LED light resulted in the highest phototactic response of M. separata moths, 1.7 times more than a commercial black light used as control. These findings clearly demonstrate that M. separata moths have a high sensitivity to the green LED light. Therefore, a light trap equipped with green LED light could be useful for monitoring and controlling M. separata moths.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0174.v3
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainable architecture; industrial building; indoor environment; lighting conditions; computational simulation; luminance
Online: 13 February 2018 (08:05:05 CET)
This paper highlights the problems associated with daylight use in industrial facilities. In a case study of a multi-story textile factory, we report how to evaluate daylight (as part of integral light) in the production halls marked F and G. This study follows the article in the Buildings journal, where Hall E was evaluated (unilateral daylight). These two additional halls have large areas that are 54 × 54 meters and are more than 5 meters high. The daylight is only on the side through the attached windows in envelope structures in the vertical position. In this paper, we want to present two case studies of these two production halls in a textile factory in the eastern part of Slovakia. These are halls that are illuminated by daylight from two sides through exterior peripheral walls that are against or next to each other. The results of the case studies can be applied in similar production halls illuminated by a ‘double-sided’ (bilateral) daylight system. This means that they are illuminated by natural illumination through windows on two sides in a vertical position. Such a situation is typical for multi-storied industrial buildings. The proposed approximate calculation method for the daylight factor can be used to predict the daylight in similar spaces in other similar buildings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0031.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: industrial building; environment; lighting analysis; building physics; sustainable architecture; computational simulation; integrated lighting; solar radiation; luminance; sky components
Online: 16 June 2017 (12:29:28 CEST)
We present observations from evaluation of internal environmental quality of industrial halls with priority on daylighting in combination with the integral lighting. The physical parameters related to indoor lighting in large industrial halls in winter and summer periods were analyzed using in situ measurements and computational methods. These are part of a comprehensive research on indoor environmental quality of industrial halls with the aims of saving energy and providing a comfortable environment for the workers while improving the productivity. The results showed that the procedures used for evaluation of residential or office buildings may not be used for industrial buildings. We also observed that the criteria of occupants’ comforts for indoor industrial buildings may differ from those of other kinds of buildings. Based on these results, an adequate attention is required for designing the industrial buildings. For this reason, appropriate evaluation methods and criteria should be created. We found the measured values of daylight factor very close to the skylight component of the total illumination. The skylight component was observed on average 30% that of the measured daylight factor values. Although the daylight is not emphasized when designing the industrial buildings and its contribution is small, but it is very important for the workers psychology and physiology. The workers must feel a connection with the exterior environment; otherwise, their productivity decreases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0319.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: monocular depth cues; luminance contrast; colour; visual arts; image plane; human perception; brain; 3D structure; figure-ground; Gestalt Theory
Online: 27 January 2020 (01:54:27 CET)
Victor Vasarely’s (1906-1997) important legacy to the study of human perception is brought to the forefront and discussed. A large part of his impressive work conveys the appearance of striking three-dimensional shapes and structures in a large-scale pictorial plane. Current perception science explains such effects by invoking brain mechanisms for the processing of monocular (2D) depth cues. Here in this study, we illustrate and explain the local effects of 2D color and contrast cues on the perceptual organization in terms of figure-ground assignments, i.e. which local surfaces are likely to be seen as “nearer” or “bigger” in the image plane. Paired configurations are embedded in a larger, structurally ambivalent pictorial context inspired by some of Vasarely’s creations. The figure-ground effects these configurations produce reveal a significant correlation between perceptual solutions for “nearer” and “bigger” when no other monocular depth cues are given in the image. In consistency with previous findings on similar, albeit simpler visual displays, a specific color may compete with luminance contrast in resolving the planar ambiguity of a complex pattern context. Vasarely intuitively understood, and successfully exploited, this kind of subtle context effect in his art, well before empirical investigations had set out to study and explain their genesis in terms of information processing by the visual brain.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: thin film transistor (TFT); organic light emitting diode (OLED); compensation circuit; luminance degradation; artificial intelligence; deep neural network; convolutional neural networks
Online: 29 April 2021 (09:10:06 CEST)
We propose a deep learning algorithm that directly compensates for luminance degradation owing to the deterioration of organic light emitting diode (OLED) devices to address the burn-in phenomenon of OLED displays. Conventional compensation circuits are encumbered by a high cost of development and manufacturing processes owing to their complexity. However, given that deep learning algorithms are typically mounted on a system on chip (SoC), the complexity of the circuit design is reduced, and the circuit can be reused by re-learning only the changed characteristics of the new pixel device. The proposed approach comprises deep feature generation and multi-stream self-attention, which decipher the importance of the variables, and the correlation between burn-in-related variables. It also utilizes a deep neural network that identifies the nonlinear relationship between the extracted features and luminance degradation. Thereafter, the luminance degradation is estimated from the burn-in-related variables, and the burn-in phenomenon can be addressed by compensating for the luminance degradation. The experimental results revealed that compensation was successfully achieved within an error range of 4.56%, and demonstrate the potential of a new approach that can mitigate the burn-in phenomenon by directly compensating for pixel-level luminance deviation.