ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0005.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: logical laws; normativity of logic; reasoning; thinking
Online: 2 January 2017 (11:12:15 CET)
In this paper it is examined how, if at all, logical laws can be normative for human reasoning, wherein the notion of normativity is analysed with respect to approaches to logic given in works of Aristotle, Descartes, Kant, Frege and Wittgenstein. During the ancient and medieval period, logic was being considered in terms of discourse and dialogical practice, but since Descartes and especially Kant it has been treated as a system of laws with which the process of individual human reasoning has been compared. Therefore, normativity can be investigated in private sphere (for thinking and reasoning) and in public sphere (for dialogic practices in a community). Wittgenstein discussed both aspects of normativity: in Tractatus, a focus is on laws of logic that are primarily normative for the state of affairs in the world, while in Philosophical Investigations an emphasis is on a social aspect of normativity (which is closer to Aristotle’s view), which is derived from adopted rules that have been applied in a certain community. Taken that way, logic is certainly normative in the public sphere, but the more difficult issue is whether logic is normative for thinking, regarding to the difference between the logical laws and those of thought.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0208.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: logical entropy, logic of partitions, qudits of an observable
Online: 10 August 2018 (15:53:51 CEST)
Logical information theory is the quantitative version of the logic of partitions just as logical probability theory is the quantitative version of the dual Boolean logic of subsets. The resulting notion of information is about distinctions, differences, and distinguishability, and is formalized using the distinctions (`dits') of a partition (a pair of points distinguished by the partition). All the definitions of simple, joint, conditional, and mutual entropy of Shannon information theory are derived by a uniform transformation from the corresponding definitions at the logical level. The purpose of this paper is to give the direct generalization to quantum logical information theory that similarly focuses on the pairs of eigenstates distinguished by an observable, i.e., qudits of an observable. The fundamental theorem for quantum logical entropy and measurement establishes a direct quantitative connection between the increase in quantum logical entropy due to a projective measurement and the eigenstates (cohered together in the pure superposition state being measured) that are distinguished by the measurement (decohered in the post-measurement mixed state). Both the classical and quantum versions of logical entropy have simple interpretations as "two-draw" probabilities for distinctions. The conclusion is that quantum logical entropy is the simple and natural notion of information for quantum information theory focusing on the distinguishing of quantum states.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0123.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: causal interactions; databases; interoperability; biological pathway; logical modeling; computational biology
Online: 7 July 2020 (09:50:40 CEST)
Causal molecular interactions represent key building blocks used in computational modeling, where they facilitate the assembly of regulatory networks. These regulatory networks can then be used to predict biological and cellular behavior by system perturbations and in silico simulations. Today, broad sets of these interactions are being made available in a variety of biological knowledge resources. Moreover, different visions, based on distinct biological interests, have led to the development of multiple ways to describe and annotate causal molecular interactions. Therefore, data users can find it challenging to efficiently explore resources of causal interaction and to be aware of recorded contextual information that ensures valid use of the data. This manuscript presents a review of public resources collecting causal interactions and the different views they convey, together with a thorough description of the export formats established to store and retrieve these interactions. Our goal is to raise awareness amongst the targeted audience, i.e., logical modelers, but also any scientist interested in molecular causal interactions, about existing data resources and how to get familiar with them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: model-based system engineering (MBSE); model-based systems architecting (MBSA); model-based pattern language (MBPL); system architecture; logical architecture; SysML patterns; pattern library; systems engineering (SE); pattern language; logical decomposition
Online: 9 August 2022 (09:26:54 CEST)
This paper presents an approach to the application of the Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) and Model-Based Systems Architecting (MBSA) principles to develop a Model-Based Pattern Language (MBPL). It takes too long for systems engineers and architects to develop a new system from scratch, particularly new space-based systems derived from the existing space systems architectures. A pattern language is a holistic view of reusable logical model artifacts; many are interdisciplinary and introductory, if at all. The results are mostly a combination of the application-specific logical solution, which further results in the best possible overall solution. The main benefit of the pattern language is reducing the time and validation required to generate a new space-based system architecture; this approach will develop top-level requirements in the initial phase of the system development. The rationale of the methodology proposed by the paper is as follows, collect, and decompose published literature and other open-source information available on space system architectures and system models; develop SysML models for systems, subsystems, products, assembly, subassembly level, and mission-specific requirements using CAMEO SysML software. Arrange these patterns to develop a functional ontology and construct a logical architecture pattern library. This approach created, updated, and managed SysML pattern language, which evaluated the expedited new model construction. Again, our objective is to develop a logical pattern language using public domain information and evaluate patterns by constructing a new space mission concept—for example, planetary surface habitat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0006.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: Fuzzy forecasting, fuzzy-fluctuation trend, particle swarm optimization, fuzzy time series, fuzzy logical relationship
Online: 4 July 2017 (16:35:22 CEST)
Most of existing fuzzy forecasting models partition historical training time series into fuzzy time series and build fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups to generate forecasting rules. The determination process of intervals is complex and uncertainty. In this paper, we present a novel fuzzy forecasting model based on high-order fuzzy-fluctuation trends and the fuzzy-fluctuation logical relationships of the training time series. Firstly, we compare each data with the data of its previous day in historical training time series to generate a new fluctuation trend time series(FTTS). Then, fuzzify the FTTS into fuzzy-fluctuation time series(FFTS) according to the up, equal or down range and orientation of the fluctuations. Since the relationship between historical FFTS and the fluctuation trend of future is nonlinear, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is employed to estimate the required parameters. Finally, use the acquired parameters to forecast the future fluctuations. In order to compare the performance of the proposed model with that of the other models, we apply the proposed method to forecast the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index (TAIEX) time series datasets. The experimental results and the comparison results show that the proposed method can be successfully applied in stock market forecasting or such kinds of time series. We also apply the proposed method to forecast Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index (SHSECI) to verify its effectiveness and universality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0178.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General Mathematics Keywords: Euler's relation; transcendental numbers; transcendental operations / functions; transcendence; Yang-Baxter equation; hyperbolic functions, logical implication
Online: 19 January 2018 (04:07:39 CET)
Bringing toghether mathematical and philosophical ideas related to transcendental numbers, this paper begins with a survey on transcendence and transcendental numbers, it then presents several properties of the transcendental numbers e and π, and then it gives the proof of a new inequality for transcendental numbers. Also, in relationship with these topics, we study solutions to the Yang-Baxter equation from hyperbolic functions and from logical implication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0054.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: philosophy of information; organised complexity; Kolmogorov complexity; logical depth; ethics of information; computational ethics; infoethics; machine ethics; computational complexity
Online: 20 December 2018 (05:34:55 CET)
I review previous attempts, including recent ones, to introduce technical aspects of digital information and computation into the discussion of ethics. I survey some limitations and advantages of these attempts to produce guiding principles at different scales. In particular, I briefly introduce and discuss questions, approaches, challenges, and limitations based on, or related to, simulation, information theory, integrated information, computer simulation, intractability, algorithmic complexity, and measures of computational organisation and sophistication. I discuss and propose a set of features that ethical frameworks must possess in order to be considered well-grounded, both in theoretical and methodological terms. I will show that while global ethical frameworks that are uncomputable are desirable because they provide non-teleological direction and open-ended meaning, constrained versions should be able to provide guidelines at more local and immediate time scales. In connection to the ethics of artificial intelligence, one point that must be underscored about computational approaches is that (General) AI should only embrace an ethical framework that we humans are willing to adopt. I think that such a framework is possible, taking the form of a general and universal (in the sense of computation) framework built from first computational principles.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: spiritual intelligence; biology of knowledge; developmental psychology; logical analysis; neurology; neuroscience; transpersonal psychology; Howard Gardner; theory of multiple intelligences; cognitive sciences
Online: 22 October 2021 (08:16:01 CEST)
The concept of spiritual intelligence is currently at the focus of scientific debate. One of the most important problems is if it is a valid intelligence that meets the criteria developed by scholars. In this paper, I look at this idea in the context of Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences and show some evidence from biology, neurology, and other scientific disciplines