Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Central nervous system (CNS); blood-brain barrier (BBB); self-assembled polymeric nanoparticles; intranasal delivery; biodistribution
Online: 23 September 2020 (04:23:41 CEST)
Intranasal (i.n.) administration became an alternative strategy to bypass the blood-brain barrier and improve drug bioavailability in the brain. The main goal of this work was to preliminarily study the biodistribution of mixed amphiphilic mucoadhesive nanoparticles made of chitosan-g-poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(vinyl alcohol)-g-poly(methyl methacrylate) and ionotropically crosslinked with sodium tripolyphosphate in the brain after intravenous (i.v.) and i.n. administration to Hsd:ICR mice. After i.v. administration, the highest nanoparticle accumulation was detected in the liver, among other peripheral organs. After i.n. administration of a 10-times smaller nanoparticle dose, the accumulation of the nanoparticles in off-target organs was much lower than after i.v. injection. In particular, the accumulation of the nanoparticles in the liver was 20 times lower than by i.v. When brains were analyzed separately, intravenously administered nanoparticles accumulated mainly in the “top” brain, reaching a maximum after 1h. Conversely, in i.n. administration, nanoparticles were detected in the “bottom” brain and the head (maximum reached after 2 h) owing to their retention in the nasal mucosa and could serve as a reservoir from which the drug is released and transported to the brain over time. Overall results indicate that i.n. nanoparticles reach similar brain bioavailability, though with a 10-fold smaller dose, and accumulate in off-target organs to a more limited extent and only after redistribution through the systemic circulation. At the same time, both administration routes seem to lead to differential accumulation in brain regions and thus, they could be beneficial in the treatment of different medical conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1558.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: glioblastoma; intranasal delivery; oncolytic adenovirus; XVir‐N‐31; shuttle cells
Online: 22 August 2023 (11:22:58 CEST)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive and lethal primary brain tumor with restricted treatment options and a dismal prognosis. Oncolytic virotherapy (OV) has developed as a promising approach for GBM treatment. However, reaching invasive GBM cells may be hindered by tumor-surrounding, non-neoplastic cells when the OV is applied intratumorally. In this study, using a rodent GBM model and immunofluorescence analyses, we investigated the intranasal delivery of the oncolytic adenovirus (OAV) XVir-N-31 via virus-loaded, optimized shuttle cells. Intranasal administration (INA) was selected due to its non-invasive nature and the potential to bypass the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Our findings demonstrate that INA of XVir-N-31 loaded shuttle cells successfully delivers OAVs to the core tumor and invasive GBM cells, significantly prolongs the survival of GBM bearing mice, induces immunogenic cell death and finally reduces tumor burden, all this highlighting the therapeutic potential of this innovative approach. Overall, this study provides compelling evidence for the effectiveness of INA of XVir-N-31 via shuttle cells as a promising therapeutic strategy for GBM. The non-invasive nature of INA of OV-loaded shuttle cells holds great promise for future clinical translation. However, further research is required to assess the efficacy of this approach to ultimately progress in human clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0497.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; vaccine; hACE2 transgenic mice; intranasal route; spike protein; cationic liposome; CpG-ODNs; heterologous immunity
Online: 9 October 2023 (11:43:57 CEST)
Mucosal vaccination appears to be suitable to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, we tested an intranasal mucosal vaccine candidate to COVID-19 constituted of a cationic liposome containing a trimeric SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and CpG-ODNs, a Toll-like receptor 9 agonist, as adjuvant. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicated the absence of toxicity following the intranasal administration of this vaccine formulation. First, we found that subcutaneous or intranasal vaccination protected hACE-2 transgenic mice from infection with the wild-type (Wuhan) SARS-CoV-2 strain, as shown by weight lost and mortality indicators. However, when compared to the subcutaneous administration, the intranasal route was more effective in the pulmonary clearance of the virus and induced higher neutralizing antibodies and anti-S IgA titers. In addition, the intranasal vaccination afforded protection against gamma, delta and omicron virus variants of concern. Furthermore, the intranasal vaccine formulation was superior to intramuscular vaccination with a recombinant, replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vector encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (Oxford/AstraZeneca) in terms of virus lung clearance and production of neutralizing antibodies in serum and bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL). Finally, the intranasal liposomal formulation boosted heterologous immunity induced by previous intramuscular vaccination with the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine that was more robust than homologous immunity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1816.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: intranasal administration; emergency department; migraine; primary headache disorder; analgesics; acute pain management; pain; ketamine; fentanyl; paracetamol; ketorolac; nsaid
Online: 28 August 2023 (08:22:31 CEST)
In the Emergency Department (ED), pain is one of the symptoms that is most frequently reported, making it one of the most significant issues for the emergency physician, but is frequently under treated. Intravenous (IV), oral (PO), and intramuscular (IM) delivery are the standard methods for administering acute pain relief. Firstly, we compared the safety and efficacy of IN analgesia to other conventional routes of analgesia to assess if IN analgesia may be an alternative for the management of acute pain in ED. Secondary, we analyzed the incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs) and rescue analgesia required. We performed a systematic review-based keywords in Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and Controlled Trials Register finding only twenty randomized Clinical trials eligible in the timeline 1992-2022. A total of 2098 patients were analyzed and compared to intravenous analgesia showing no statistical difference in adverse effects. In addition, intranasal analgesia also has a rapid onset and quick absorption. Fentanyl and ketamine are two intranasal drugs that appear promising and may be taken simply and safely while providing effective pain relief. IN is simple to administer, non-invasive, rapid onset and quick absorption; it might be a viable choice in a variety of situations to reduce patient suffering or delays in pain management. Analgesia needs to be tailored to each patient's features and type of pain: IN Fentanyl and Ketamine look promising and may be administered easily and safely while providing effective pain relief.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1675.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: in situ gel; intranasal delivery, gellan gum; mucoadhesion; 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid; respiratory syncytial virus; common cold; antiviral activity
Online: 24 May 2023 (03:08:42 CEST)
The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) poses a serious risk to global public health and is a significant cause of severe lower respiratory infections. There are currently only a few therapies available to treat RSV infections, as well as no RSV vaccinations. Therefore, there is an urgent demand for clinically feasible, safe, and affordable RSV prevention and treatment alternatives. In this study, an ion-activated in situ gel comprising broad-spectrum antiviral 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) for antiviral action on RSV was developed. In this content, mechanical properties, sprayability, drug content, pH, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength, in vitro drug release pattern, and stability were all examined. Rheological properties were also tested by utilizing in vitro gelation capacity and rheological synergism tests. Finally, the optimized in situ gel's cytotoxic and antiviral activities on RSV cultured in human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEP-2) cell line were evaluated. In conclusion, the optimized in situ gel prepared with a combination of 0.5%w/w gellan gum and 0.5%w/w sodium carboxymethylcellulose demonstrated good gelation capacity and sprayability (weight deviation between T0 and T14: 0.34%), desired rheological synergism (mucoadhesive force (Fb): 9.53), mechanical characteristics (adhesiveness: 0.300 mJ ± 0.05), ex vivo bioadhesion force (19.67 g ± 1.90), drug content uniformity (RSD%: 0.494), and sustained drug release over period of 168 h (101.57% ± 0.53). The antiviral activity test results showed that the optimized in situ gel had strong anti-HRSV activity (EC50 simultaneous = 0.05 µg/ml, SI = 306; EC50 preinfection = 0.154 µg/ml, SI= 100) which was significantly higher than that of ribavirin (EC50 =4.189 µg/ml; SI= 28) used as a positive control against hRSV. In conclusion, this research has demonstrated the formulation of an effective antiviral nasal spray that has the ability to possess both prophylactic and virucidal activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0739.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Newcastle Disease virus; adenovirus vaccine; vaccine manufacturing; intranasal vaccination; mucosal protection; HEK293 suspension cells; bioreactor production; downstream processing; veterinary vaccine production platform
Online: 13 November 2023 (14:21:24 CET)
Newcastle Disease (ND) remains a critical disease affecting poultry in sub-Saharan Africa. In some countries, repeated outbreaks have a major impact on local economies and food security. Recently, we developed an adenovirus-vectored vaccine encoding the Fusion protein from an Ethiopian isolate of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). The adenoviral vector was designed and a manufacturing process developed in the context of the Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund initia-tive funded by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada. The industrial-ly-relevant recombinant vaccine technology platform is being transferred to the National Veteri-nary Institute (Ethiopia) for veterinary applications. Here, we demonstrate that the instillation of the adenoviral vector through the nasal cavity can confer protection to chickens against a lethal challenge with NDV. A manufacturing process using HEK293 suspension cells cultured in stirred-tank bioreactor for the vaccine production is proposed. Taking into consideration supply chain limitations, options for serum-free media selection have been evaluated. A streamlined downstream process including a filtration, an ultrafiltration and a concentration step was de-veloped. With high volumetric yields (infectious titers up to 5 x 109 TCID50/mL) in the culture su-pernatant, the final formulations were prepared at 1010 TCID50/mL, either in liquid or lyophi-lized forms. The liquid formulation was suitable and safe for mucosal vaccination and was sta-ble for 1 week at 37˚C. Both liquid and lyophilized formulations were stable after 6 months of storage at 4˚C. Overall, a manufacturing process for adenovirus vectored vaccine was developed and protective doses were determined using a convenient route of delivery. Formulation and storage conditions were established, and quality control protocols were implemented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: ifampin; proteinopathies; permeability glycoprotein; intranasal; bi-directional; Alzheimer’s; Parkinson’s; Lewy body dementia; multiple system atrophy; huntington’s; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia spectrum
Online: 10 February 2023 (02:31:56 CET)
This article proposes the use of intranasal rifampin as a means to improve protein homeostasis and disaggregate misfolded proteins in the age-related neurodegenerative proteinopathies. Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multi-system atrophy, Lewy body dementia, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington’s disease are all, at the core, proteinopathies. Although these diseases varying greatly in the specific disease-associated proteins, anatomic sites of the abnormal protein deposition and clinical presentations, what they have in common is disruption of normal “housekeeping” functions related to protein homeostasis, proteostasis. The prospect of pharmacologically augmenting autophagic capacity with a known drug repurposed to improve proteostasis is attractive; to accomplish these ends with an inexpensive drug with relative ease of delivery adds to the attractiveness. Rifampin can be delivered to the brain via the intranasal route. Rifampin has been used for decades primarily against mycobacterial infection; it has been given with intravenous, oral, intrathecal and topical routes including as eyedrops and nasal spray. Rifampin disaggregates toxic oligomers in vitro; given intranasally, rifampin improves memory and clears pathologic proteins in animal models of the proteinopathies. Rifampin acts as both a gatekeeper and a housekeeper against the abnormal proteins of these diseases. This article suggests the merit of a clinical trial with intranasal rifampin to boost protein homeostasis in the most common age-related neurodegenerative proteinopathy, Alzheimer’s disease. The primary outcome of such a trial is change in risk of Alzheimer’s pathology as measured by plasma-based amyloid peptide 42/40 testing pretreatment and follow-up testing after 6 months of intranasal rifampin.