ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1334.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: victimizing and perpetrating violence; interpersonal and intimate violence; harmful alcohol and drug use; mental health symptoms; paths of violence; gender
Online: 18 May 2023 (10:46:13 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic may have increased interpersonal and intimate violence, harmful use of alcohol and other drugs (AOD), and mental health problems. The present study uses a valid path model to describe relationships between these conditions of young Mexicans during the second year of the pandemic. A sample of 7,420 young Mexicans ages 18 to 24—two-thirds of whom were women—completed the Life Events Checklist, the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test, the Major-Depressive-Episode Checklist, the Generalized Anxiety Scale, and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist. Young Mexicans reported higher rates of victimization and perpetration of interpersonal and intimate violence and mental health symptomatology than those noted pre-pandemic and in the first year of the pandemic. Harmful use of AOD rates were like those reported by adolescents before. Findings suggested asymmetric victimization and perpetration of intimate violence by gender (with women being at a higher risk than men, p≤.05). More men than women engaged in the harmful use of AOD (except for sedatives, which more women abuse). In contrast, more women than men were at risk of all mental health conditions. The path model indicates that being a victim of intimate violence predicts harmful use of tobacco, alcohol, cocaine, and sedatives, depression, anxiety, and specific PTSD symptoms (such as re-experimentation and avoidance symptoms). Being a victim of interpersonal violence resulted in severe PTSD symptoms (including avoidance, negative alterations in cognition-mood, and hyperarousal signs). Harmful use of sedatives predicted depressive symptoms. Men´s victimizing intimate violence model contrasted with that of women, which also included being the victim of interpersonal violence and severe PTSD symptoms. The high school youth model had three paths -victimizing-intimate violence, victimizing-interpersonal abuse, and sedative use, which predicted depression. The findings of this study could serve as the basis for future studies exploring mechanisms that predict violence patterns to develop the most cost-effective preventive programs and public policies and to address mental health conditions during community emergencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0310.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Alcohol addiction; substance addiction; self-awareness; rehabilitation; scale development; tertiary prevention; dangerous and harmful use; positive psychotherapy in addiction
Online: 13 April 2023 (08:19:34 CEST)
Alcohol and substance addiction is a type of brain disease that damages many areas of life of the individual and has psychological components. Since questioning alcohol use alone is not sufficient in the diagnostic evaluation process, self-awareness and the individual's long-term psychological well-being are important in the rehabilitation process. Since investigating alcohol use alone is not sufficient in the diagnostic evaluation process, self-awareness and the individual’s long-term psychological well-being are important in the rehabilitation process. Primary prevention is used to prevent disease in healthy people, and secondary prevention is used for early diagnosis to people at risk. Tertiary prevention is important to prevent recurrence of the disease in the treated person. In addiction, which is a chronic problem, a need has emerged for tertiary prevention, that is, rehabilitation standards. If people are uncertain about the harm perception and the natural result of their behavior, they easily slip into the substance. Therefore, as a positive psychotherapy technique, harm perception and result awareness levels should be clarified. For this reason, scales were developed. The inclusion of new psychology perspectives and therapy techniques, such as positive psychology, in the treatment process requires setting new standards. In this study, it was aimed to develop result awareness and harm perception scales to determine the awareness levels and rehabilitation standards of alcohol and substance addicted individuals, and to compare awareness in normal and addicted groups. The study group consisted of 1134 participants, 41 of whom were addicts. Among the two scales developed in the study, the Uskudar Result Awareness Scale (USRAS) consisting of 25 items and 6 factor, explained 58.4% of the total variance. The Uskudar Harm Perception Scale (USHPS), consisting of 36 items and 10 factors, explained 56.3% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis of the two scales resulted in acceptable goodness-of-fit values. (X2/df<3; RMSEA<.08; NFI>.90; NNFI>.95; CFI>.95; GFI>.90; AGFI>.85). In the comparisons made, the result awareness of the normal group was moderate (X=3,81); whereas the addicted group had a low result awareness (X=3,20); The effect size of the difference between the two groups was found to be high (d=1,45; >0,8). In the other measure, the harm perception of the normal group was found in the low-risk group (X=3,78); the harm perception of the addicted group was found in the moderate-risk group (X=3,43). According to Cohen d calculations, the effect size of the difference between the two groups is high (d=1,43; >0,8). It has been concluded that the two scales that emerged in the research are valid and safe, can be included in the rehabilitation studies and the creation of self-awareness, and their effectiveness should be tested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0427.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Plankton; Monitoring; Harmful algae; microscopic; genetic; Western Channel
Online: 22 December 2022 (11:34:13 CET)
Plankton monitoring by microscopy offers long-term ecological perspective of plankton com-munities but different detection approaches are biased uniquely. Genetic identification of marine plankton has become standard but is still not used in routine monitoring. This study assessed the diversity of plankton taxa using 18S high throughput sequencing from 2011-2012 from small-volume (~200ml) samples from the Water and Microplankton Sampler (WaMS) deployed on the Continuous Plankton Recorder platform (CPR). The 18S-HTS survey revealed a bias towards heterotrophic taxa, and phototrophs under 10µm within the photosynthetic community. In comparison with phytoplankton microscopic counts from the CPR survey and Western Channel Observatory station L4, only 8-12 taxonomic families were common to all three surveys, with a bias towards larger diatoms and dinoflagellate taxa in microscopy surveys. The WaMS survey detected a contrasting but complementary taxa set to that of microscopic surveys. Additional Quantitative PCR was carried out on the picoeukaryotic pelagophyte, Aureococcus anophagefferens, and the nanoeukaryotic potential harmful algae, Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima, from 2011-2013. This confirmed the persistence presence of A. anophagefferens in the Western Channel and an elevated abundance of both species in 2011. Species specific seasonality were distinct from those of aggregrate phytoplankton groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0124.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Drinking water; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Harmful algal blooms; Microcystin
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:25:15 CEST)
Clean, fresh, and safe drinking water is essential to human health and well-being. Occasionally, chemical pollutants taint surface water quality used for consumption. Microcystins (MCs) are toxic heptapeptides produced by freshwater cyanobacteria. These secondary metabolites can reach hazardous concentrations, impairing surface drinking water supplies. Inconsistent screening of MCs is not uncommon in Florida waters as no provisional guidance value is established to protect public health. The occurrence of MCs in Lake Manatee and Lake Washington was monitored over the potential peak algae bloom season (June-August). An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) quantified total MCs in two drinking water systems. Varied concentrations occurred between June and July, whereas concentrations peaked in August. Overall, MC prevalence was higher in Lake Manatee than Lake Washington. Colorimetric assays measured phosphate and nitrite in environmental water samples. Phosphate and nitrite concentrations strongly correlated with total MCs (p < 0.01). The results indicate the intrinsic nature of environmental MCs in surface drinking water supplies and the need to examine hepatotoxin dynamics to preserve drinking water quality in community served areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0332.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Plankton; Monitoring; Harmful algae; microscopic; genetic; Western Channel
Online: 22 July 2022 (03:33:40 CEST)
Plankton monitoring by microscopy offers long-term ecological perspective of plankton communities but is biased towards those organisms that can be distinguished using the microscope. Genetic identification of marine plankton has become standard but is still not used. This study is a comprehensive study genetically measured taxa in the Western Channel of UK using a small-volume automated water sampler deployed on the CPR platform. The study present one year of high-throughput sequencing data focussing on smaller plankton and separate community to that measured by microscopy that can complement each other for a holistic view of plankton. Quantitative tests of two harmful algae show relatively high abundance of the Pelagophyte Aureococcus anophagefferens during 2011 with low nitrite levels. Three years of Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima quantitative monitoring also shows a greater abundance of this potentially harmful taxa in 2011. Flow cytometry reveals distinct seasonal cycles with distinct timings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0169.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: cyanobacteria; cyanotoxins; nutrient enrichment; akinetes; harmful algal blooms; PCR; phylogenetic analyses
Online: 10 May 2018 (15:37:51 CEST)
The presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and cyanotoxins in drinking water sources poses a great threat to human health. The current study employed molecular techniques to determine the occurrence of non-toxic and toxic cyanobacteria species in the Limpopo River basin based on the phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene. The bottom sediments samples were collected from selected rivers: Limpopo, Crocodile, Mokolo, Mogalakwena, Nzhelele, Lephalale, Sand Rivers (South Africa); Notwane (Botswana), Shashe River and Mzingwane River (Zimbabwe). The physical-chemical analysis of the bottom sediments showed the availability of nutrients, nitrates and phosphates, in excess of 0.5 mg/l for most of river sediments, alkaline pH and salinity in excess of 500 mg/l. The FlowCam showed the dominant cyanobacteria species identified from the samples were Microcystis species, followed by Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Phormidium and Planktothrix species and this was confirmed by molecular techniques. Nevertheless, two samples showed the amplification of cylindrospermopsin polyketide synthetase gene (S3 and S9) while two samples showed amplification for microcystin/nodularin synthetase gene (S8 and S13). Thus these findings may imply the presence of toxic cyanobacteria species in the river sediments. The presence of cyanobacteria may be hazardous to human because rural communities and farmers who abstract water from Limpopo river catchment for human consumption, livestock and wildlife watering and irrigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: closed constant volume combustion; Otto cycle; operational constraints; flue gases composition; harmful noxious
Online: 2 May 2023 (11:01:53 CEST)
This paper develops a chemical model for a closed constant volume combustion of gaseous mixtures of methane and hydrogen. Since the combustion is strongly depending on temperature, pressure and fuel composition, they were chosen the actual corresponding thermodynamic systems using this kind of combustion, respectively the spark ignition reciprocating engines in order to evaluate the combustion parameters and exhaust flue gases composition. The actual cycles impose extra restrictive operational conditions through the engine volumetric compression ratio, the geometry of combustion volume, the mode to prepare the mixture of methane and hydrogen, the cooling system and the delivered power. The chemical model avoided the unknown influences in order to explain accurately the influence of hydrogen upon the constant volume combustion and flue gases composition. The model adopted simplifying hypotheses, respectively isentropic compression and expansion processes, closed constant volume combustion developed by two successive steps obeying to the energy and mass conservation laws and, flue gases exhaust described also by two steps, i.e. an isentropic expansion through the flow section of exhaust valves followed by a constant pressure stagnation (this succession is corresponding in fact to a throttling direct process). The chemical model supposed the homogeneous mixtures of gases with variable heat capacities function of temperatures, the Mendeleev - Clapeyron ideal gas state equation and, the variable chemical equilibrium constants for chosen chemical reactions. It was assumed that the flue gases chemistry is prevailing during the isentropic expansion and flue gases exhaust and has mainly a thermal ground. The chemical model allowed evaluation of flue gasses composition and of noxious emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0464.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: satellite monitoring; spectral shape algorithm; Karenia bloom evolution; harmful algal bloom
Online: 26 December 2022 (02:55:48 CET)
The environmental disaster in Kamchatka in the autumn of 2020 was caused by an extensive bloom of harmful microalgae of the genus Karenia. A spectral shape algorithm was used to detect algae. The algorithm calibration of in situ species composition data made it possible to identify areas where harmful algae dominated in biomass. Satellite images of chlorophyll-a concentra-tion, turbidity, specific fluorescence, and spectral shape parameter were computed. The images were used to recognize the stages of algal bloom: intensive growth, blooming, and change in the dominant algal species. Cases of an increase in the concentration of harmful substances in the coastal zone due to wind impact were analyzed. The following explanation of events has been offered. After the stage of intensive growth of microalgae, nutrient deficiency stimulated the production of metabolites that have a harmful effect on the environment. The change of the dominant alga species in the second half of September and the past storm contributed to a sharp increase in the concentration of metabolites and dead organic matter in the coastal zone, which caused an ecological disaster. The subsequent mass bloom of alga species of the same genus, and the regular wind impact leading to the concentration of harmful substances in the coastal zone, contributed to the development of this catastrophic phenomena.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0038.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Karenia brevis, harmful algal bloom (HAB), moderate resolution imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), prediction, chlorophyll, multivariate regression
Online: 3 September 2018 (13:52:41 CEST)
Over the past two decades, persistent occurrences of harmful algal blooms (HAB; Karenia brevis) have been reported in Charlotte County, southwestern Florida. We developed data-driven models that rely on spatiotemporal remote sensing and field data to identify factors controlling HAB propagation, provide a same-day distribution (nowcasting), and forecast their occurrences up to three days in advance. We constructed multivariate regression models using historical HAB occurrences (213 events reported from January 2010 to October 2017) compiled by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission and validated the models against a subset (20%) of the reported historical events. The models were designed to specifically capture the onset of the HABs instead of those that developed days earlier and continued thereafter. A prototype of an early warning system was developed through a threefold exercise. The first step involved the automatic downloading and processing of daily Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua products using SeaDAS ocean color processing software to extract temporal and spatial variations of remote sensing-based variables over the study area. The second step involved the development of a multivariate regression model for same-day mapping of HABs and similar subsequent models for forecasting HAB occurrences one, two, and three days in advance. Eleven remote sensing variables and two non-remote sensing variables were used as inputs for the generated models. In the third and final step, model outputs (same-day and forecasted distribution of HABs) were posted automatically on a web-based GIS (http://www.esrs.wmich.edu/webmap/bloom/). Our findings include the following: (1) the variables most indicative of the timing of bloom propagation are bathymetry, euphotic depth, wind direction, SST, chlorophyll-a [OC3M] and distance from the river mouth, and (2) the model predictions were 90% successful for same-day mapping and 65%, 72% and 71% for the one-, two- and three-day advance predictions, respectively. The adopted methodologies are reliable, dependent on readily available remote sensing data sets, and cost-effective and thus could potentially be used to map and forecast algal bloom occurrences in data-scarce regions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0357.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: cyanotoxins; cyanobacteria; harmful algae bloom; neurodegenerative disease; microcystin; BMAA; non-proteogenic amino acids; mistranslation; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Alzheimer’s disease
Online: 19 January 2023 (11:46:59 CET)
Cyanobacteria produce a wide range of structurally diverse cyanotoxins and bioactive cyanopeptides in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. The health significance of these metabolites, which include genotoxic- and neurotoxic agents, is confirmed by continued associations between the occurrence of animal and human acute toxic events and, in the long term, by associations between cyanobacteria and neurodegenerative diseases. One of the implicated mechanisms includes a misincorporation of cyanobacterial non-proteogenic amino acids leading to mistranslation and protein misfolding. A better understanding of the interaction between the cyanopeptide metabolism and the nervous system will be crucial to target or to prevent pathogenic response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0282.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: cyanobacteria; cyanopeptides; eutrophication; harmful bloom; liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry; Global Natural Product Social networking (GNPS); Dereplication strategy.
Online: 12 August 2020 (10:15:46 CEST)
Man-made shallow fishponds in the Czech Republic have been facing a high eutrophication since 1950s. Anthropogenic eutrophication and feeding of fish have strongly affected the physico-chemical properties of water and its aquatic community composition leading to harmful algal bloom formation. In our current study, we have characterised the phytoplankton community across three hypertrophic ponds to assess the phytoplankton dynamics during the vegetation season. We microscopically identified and quantified 29 cyanobacterial taxa comprised of non-toxigenic and toxigenic species. Further, a detailed cyanopeptides (CNPs) profiling was performed using molecular networking analysis of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) data coupled with dereplication strategy. This MS networking approach coupled with dereplication on online global natural product social networking (GNPS) web platform led us to putatively identify forty CNPs: fourteen anabaenopeptins, ten microcystins, five cyanopeptolins, six microginins, two cyanobactins, a dipeptide radiosumin, a cyclooctapeptide planktocyclin and epidolastatin12. We have applied the binary logistic regression to estimate the CNPs producer by correlating the GNPS data with the species abundance. Usage of The combination of molecular networking and dereplication on online global natural product social networking (GNPS) web platform has proved as a valuable approach for rapid and simultaneous detection of high number of peptides, and rapidly assessing the risk for harmful bloom.