ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0370.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: gravel pavement; roughness; straightedge; power spectral density; international roughness index; vehicle response; driving comfort
Online: 16 July 2021 (11:58:32 CEST)
The gravel road pavement has a lower construction cost but poorer performance than the asphalt surface. It also emits dust and deforms under the impact of vehicle loads and ambient air factors. The resulting ripples and ruts are constantly deepening, increasing vehicle vibrations and fuel consumption, reducing safe driving speed and comfort. In this article, existing pavement quality evaluation indexes are analysed, and a methodology for their adaptation for roads with gravel pavement is proposed. This article reports the measured wave depth and length of the gravel pavement profile by the straightedge method of a 160 m long road section in three road exploitation stages. The measured pavement elevation was processed according to ISO 8608, and vehicle frequency response has been investigated using simulations in MATLAB/Simulink. The applied International Roughness Index (IRI) analysis showed that a speed of 30-45 km/h instead of 80 km/h provides the objective results of IRI calculation on the flexible pavement due to a decreasing velocity of vehicle's unsprung mass on a more deteriorated road pavement state. The influence of the corrugation phenomenon of gravel pavement has been explored, identifying specific driving safety and comfort cases. Finally, an increase in the Dynamic Load Coefficient (DLC) at a low speed of 30 km/h on the most deteriorated pavement and a high speed of 90 km/h on the middle-quality pavement demonstrates the demand for timely gravel pavement maintenance and the complicated prediction of a safe driving speed for drivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0726.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: horizontal well; pulsed gravel packing; completion; solid-liquid two-phase flow
Online: 30 November 2020 (12:03:31 CET)
Gravel packing completion method for horizontal wells has the advantages of maintaining high oil production for a long time, maintaining wellbore stability and preventing sand production, so it has become the preferred completion method for horizontal wells. At present, this technology still faces the problems of high sand bed height and poor gravel migration. In order to improve the efficiency of gravel packing in horizontal wells, pulsed gravel packing technology for horizontal wells is proposed for the first time. Based on the mechanism of hydraulic pulse, the Eularian model, RNG K-ε model and CFD model are used to simulate the solid-liquid two-phase flow. By optimizing the parameters such as frequency and amplitude of pulse waveform, the optimal pulse waveform of pulsed gravel packing in horizontal wells is determined. The effects of parameters such as sand-carrying fluid displacement, sand-carrying fluid viscosity, sand-carrying ratio, gravel particle size and string eccentricity on pulsed gravel packing in horizontal wells are studied, and the distribution law of gravel migration velocity and volume fraction in horizontal wells is obtained. According to the results, it can be seen that with the increase of displacement and viscosity of carrier fluid, the volume fraction of fixed bed and moving bed decreases gradually, while that of suspension bed increases gradually. With the increase of sand-carrying ratio, gravel particle size and string eccentricity, the volume fraction of fixed bed and moving bed increases gradually, while that of suspended bed decreases gradually. Comparing the effects of conventional gravel packing and pulsed gravel packing in horizontal wells, it can be concluded that the efficiency of pulsed gravel packing in horizontal wells is higher. The volume fraction of fixed bed and moving bed decreased by 30% and 40% respectively, while the volume fraction of suspended bed increased by 20%. The migration velocity of moving bed and suspended bed increased by 40% and 25% respectively. And the migration ability of gravel improved obviously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0479.v2
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: ecology technology; gravel contact oxidation; surface flow constructed wetlands; water quality; river pollution index
Online: 2 December 2018 (09:33:29 CET)
Polluted rivers are a primary problem in Changhua County, Taiwan, due to rapid and massive developments in agriculture and industry. In this study, samples consisted of water influent from the Yangzi-Cuo River, Ci-Tong Jiao, Changhua County. Ecology technology, a combination of gravel contact oxidation and surface flow constructed wetlands, was employed to enhance the water quality. Ecology technology is a useful and ordinary process that focuses on original treatment of pollution through chemical, physical, and biological procedures based on the mediums of soil, plant, water, and microorganisms from pure environments. Moreover, this study aimed to minimize the river pollution index (RPI) of the Yangzi-Cuo River by using combinations of gravel contact oxidation and surface flow constructed wetlands. The inflow volume of the water samples in situ was found to be 1534–2261 cubic meters per day (CMD). The pollution in the water sample mostly involved suspended solid (SS), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3–N), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and the values of the above indexes were found to be 10.0–26.7 mg/L, 0.9–14.0 mg/L, 1.2–14.1 mg/L, 11.1–18.2 mg/L, and 0.5–3.6 mg/L, respectively. Efficiencies of pollution elimination in SS, NH3–N, TP, TN, and BOD were found to be 24.2–93.1%, 58.3–86.2%, 5.2–85.0%, 59.4–77.2%, and 46.3–76.4%, correspondingly, after purification treatment via ecology technology. Thus, ecology technology is a valid means of purification treatment for polluted rivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0126.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Cumulative effects; fine sediment; particulate phosphorus; sediment geochemistry; gravel-bed rivers; forest disturbance; wildfire; eutrophication; climate change
Online: 8 October 2021 (08:07:28 CEST)
Cumulative effects of landscape disturbance in forested source water regions can alter the storage of fine sediment and associated phosphorus in riverbeds, shift nutrient dynamics and degrade water quality. Here, we examine longitudinal changes in major element chemistry and particulate phosphorus (PP) fractions of river-bed sediment in an oligotrophic river during environmentally sensitive low flow conditions. Study sites along 50 km of the Crowsnest River were located below tributary inflows from sub-watersheds and represent a gradient of increasing cumulative sedi-ment pressures across a range of land disturbance types (harvesting, wildfire, and municipal wastewater discharges). Major elements (Si2O, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO, CaO, MgO, Na2O, K2O, Ti2O, V2O5, P2O5), loss on ignition (LOI), PP fractions (NH4CI-RP, BD-RP, NaOH-RP, HCI-RP and NaOH(85)-RP) and absolute particle size were evaluated for sediments collected in 2016 and 2017. While total PP concentrations were similar across all sites, bioavailable PP fractions (BD-RP, NaOH-RP) increased downstream with increased concentrations of Al2O3 and MnO and levels of landscape disturbance. This study highlights the longitudinal water quality impacts of increasing landscape disturbance on bioavailable PP in fine riverbed sediments and shows how the convergence of climate (wildfire) and anthropogenic (sewage effluent, harvesting, agriculture) drivers can produce legacy effects on nutrients.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: bed load transport; shear Reynolds number; bed-armoring; bed-change; Danube; gravel-sand mixture; 3D CFD modeling
Online: 1 August 2019 (11:12:26 CEST)
In this study, the field measurement-based validation of a novel sediment transport calculation method is presented. River sections with complex bed topography and inhomogeneous bed material composition highlight the need for an improved sediment transport calculation method. The complexity of the morphodynamic features can result in the simultaneous appearance of the gravel and finer sand dominated sediment transport (e.g. parallel bed armoring and siltation) at different regions within a shorter river reach. For the improvement purpose of sediment transport calculation in such complex river beds, a novel sediment transport method was elaborated. The base concept of it is the combined use of two already existing empirical sediment transport models. The method was already validated against laboratory measurements. The major goal of this study is the verification of the novel method with a real river case study. The combining of the two sediment transport models is based on the implementation of a recently presented classification method of the locally dominant sediment transport nature (gravel or sand transport dominates). The results are compared with measured bed change maps. The verification clearly refers to the meaningful improvement in the sediment transport calculation by the novel manner in case of spatially varying bed content.