ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2183.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: immersive media; virtual reality; empathy; empathy-building simulations
Online: 31 May 2023 (07:32:34 CEST)
This research paper explores the transformative potential of immersive media, specifically virtual reality (VR), in enhancing empathy among users. Empathy is vital in fostering understanding, compassion, and social cohesion. Immersive media, with its ability to transport individuals into simulated environments and perspectives, offers unique opportunities to bridge the empathy gap. This paper examines how VR can boost empathy, including perspective-taking, emotional connection, experiential learning, breaking down barriers, and empathy-building simulations. It discusses existing studies and empirical evidence supporting the effectiveness of VR in promoting empathy. The paper acknowledges the ethical considerations and challenges associated with using VR for empathy enhancement, such as avoiding stereotype reinforcement and ensuring inclusive design. By highlighting the potential of immersive media in cultivating empathy, this research paper contributes to the growing field of empathy research and provides insights for the development and application of VR experiences aimed at fostering empathy and understanding in diverse contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: affordance; empathy; HRI; emotion; multimodal; allocentric; libraries
Online: 17 August 2018 (13:45:09 CEST)
Affordances are an important concept in cognition, which can be applied to robots in order to perform a successful human-robot interaction (HRI). In this paper we explore and discuss the idea of emotional affordances and propose a viable model for implementation into HRI. We consider “2-ways” affordances: perceived object triggering an emotion, and perceived human emotion expression triggering an action. In order to make the implementation generic, the proposed model includes a library that can be customised depending on the specific robot and application’s scenario. We present the AAA (Affordance-Appraisal-Arousal) model, which incorporates Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions, and show some examples of simulation and possible scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0266.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: design thinking; innovation; creativity; experience; empathy; thinking; consumer; health
Online: 12 May 2021 (11:14:19 CEST)
The general purpose of the Design Thinking approach (concept taken over in Romanian without its translation and which involves conception-oriented thinking) is to support the conception and design of products, services, processes, strategies, spaces, architecture and experiences ideal for use optimal. Applying the approach leads to the development of practical and innovative solutions to the problems identified in the product and / or technology design departments of companies. As described in the article Design Thinking is a process springing from the user-centered conception-design paradigm. The objective of the article is to highlight the need to combine urban study within Design Thinking, in the case of all areas of conception-design of solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Empathy; Emotional Education; Emotional Intelligence; Emotional competences; pre-primary Education
Online: 16 December 2022 (14:05:19 CET)
Today, concepts such as Emotional Education and Emotional Intelligence are recognized by many authors and researchers, emphasizing the importance of their development in all people, but especially in schools, specifically in teachers or educators and children. However, we still find many shortcomings within the schools that are needed to continue working. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of emotional intelligence and empathy in teachers, through a sample of 42 participants. The research was conducted based on two validated and highly reliable assessment tools, called TMMS-24 and TECA. The results of the TMMS-24 indicate that a large percentage of participants have an adequate score of emotional intelligence. The results of the TECA indicate that most of the participants are in the middle, high or extremely high scores in relation to the level of empathy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0267.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: affective computing; empathy; facial mimicry; facial recognition technology; deep learning
Online: 20 June 2022 (10:08:13 CEST)
Facial expressions play a key role in interpersonal communication when it comes to negotiating our emotions and intentions, as well as interpreting those of others. Research has shown that we can connect to other people better when we exhibit signs of empathy and facial mimicry. However, the relationship between empathy and facial mimicry is still debated. Among the factors contributing to the difference in results across existing studies is the use of different instruments for measuring both empathy and facial mimicry, as well as often ignoring the differences across various demographic groups. This study first looks at the differences in empathetic abilities of people across different demographic groups based on gender, ethnicity and age. The empathetic ability is measured based on the Empathy Quotient capturing a balanced representation of both emotional and cognitive empathy. Using statistical and machine learning methods, the study then investigates the correlation between the empathetic ability and facial mimicry of subjects in response to images portraying different emotions displayed on a computer screen. Unlike the existing studies measuring facial mimicry using electromyography, this study employs a technology detecting facial expressions based on video capture and deep learning. This choice was made in the context of increased online communication during and post the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of this study confirm the previously reported difference in the empathetic ability between females and males. However, no significant difference in the empathetic ability was found across different age and ethnic groups. Furthermore, no strong correlation was found between empathy and facial reactions to faces portraying different emotions shown on a computer screen. Overall, the results of this study can be used to inform the design of online communication technologies and tools for training empathy team leaders, educators, social, and health care providers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0170.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: Edith Stein; care ethics; personalism; feminism; empathy; emotions; caring; phenomenology
Online: 18 April 2022 (11:41:18 CEST)
The personalist ethics of Edith Stein and her feminist thought are intrinsically interrelated. This unique connection constitutes perhaps the main novelty of Stein’s ethical thought that makes her a forerunner of some recent developments in feminist ethics, particularly ethics of care. A few scholars noticed the resemblance between Stein’s feminist personalism and care ethics, yet none of them have properly explored it. This paper offers an in-depth discussion of the overlaps and differences between Stein’s ethical insights and the core ideas of care ethics. It argues that both Stein and care ethicists relocate a certain set of practices, values and attitudes from the periphery to the center of ethical reflection. This includes relationality, emotionality and care. The paper finally argues that it is plausible and fruitful to read Stein’s advocacy of ‘woman’s values and attitudes’ in a critical feminist way, rather than as an instance of essentialist difference feminism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0425.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Empathy; comparative thanatology; cognitive biases; animal ethics; mentaphobia; primates; elephants; birds; robot
Online: 16 November 2020 (14:23:45 CET)
Anthropomorphism is a natural tendency in humans, but it is also influenced by many characteristics of the observer (the human) and the observed entity (here, the animal species). This study asked participants to complete an online questionnaire about three videos showing epimeletic behaviours in three animal species. In the videos, an individual (a sparrow, an elephant and a macaque, respectively) displayed behaviours towards an inanimate conspecific that suddenly regained consciousness at the end of the footage. A fourth video showed a robot dog being kicked by an engineer to demonstrate its stability. Each video was followed by a series of questions designed to evaluate the degree of anthropomorphism of participants, from mentaphobia (no attribution of intentions and beliefs, whatever the animal species) to full anthropomorphism (full attribution of intentions and beliefs by animals, to the same extent as in humans) and to measure how far the participants had correctly assessed each situation in terms of biological reality (current scientific knowledge of each species). There is a negative correlation (about 61%) between the mental states attributed to animals by humans to animals and the real capability of animals. The heterogeneity of responses proved that humans display different forms of anthropomorphism, from rejecting all emotional or intentional states in animals to considering animals to show the same intentions as humans. However, the scores participants attributed to animals differed according to the species shown in the video and to human sociodemographic characteristics. Understanding the potential usefulness of these factors can lead to better relationships with animals and encourage a positive view of human-robot interactions. Indeed, reflective or critical anthropomorphism can increase our humanity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0711.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Empathy; comparative thanatology; cognitive biases; animal ethics; mentaphobia; primates; elephants; birds; robot
Online: 31 August 2020 (06:13:03 CEST)
In this study, we asked participants to answer an online questionnaire about videos showing animal epimeletic behaviours: an individual (a sparrow, an elephant and a macaque) displayed behaviours towards an inanimate conspecific who suddenly got back to conscious at the end of the footage. A fourth video showed a dog-robot kicked by an engineer to demonstrate its stability. After each video, questions were asked to score the degree of anthropomorphism of participants, from mentophobia (no attribution whatever the species) to full anthropomorphism and to measure how close participants are to biological reality (actual scientific knowledge). A first important result is that there is a negative correlation (about 61%) between the anthropomorphism score (AS) and the biological reality one (BRS) showing a wrong statement. The heterogeneity of responses proved that all levels of anthropomorphism are covered from mentaphobia to full anthropomorphism. However, the scores participants attributed to animals differ according to the species shown in the video and to human characteristics. Understanding how one can play with these factors can conduct to better relationships with animals as encourage human-robot interactions. Finally, such reflective anthropomorphism can lead to an increase of human empathy and sociality, finally increasing our humanity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0251.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: social robots; behavioural models; assistive robotics; cognitive architectures; empathy; human-robot interaction
Online: 20 May 2019 (12:31:23 CEST)
The cooperation between humans and robots is becoming increasingly important in our society. Consequently, there is a growing interest in the development of models that can enhance the interaction between humans and robots. A key challenge in the Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) field is to provide robots with cognitive and affective capabilities, developing architectures that let them establish empathetic relationships with users. Several models have been proposed in recent years to solve this open-challenge. This work provides a survey of the most relevant attempts/works. In details, it offers an overview of the architectures present in literature focusing on three specific aspects of HRI: the development of adaptive behavioural models, the design of cognitive architectures, and the ability to establish empathy with the user. The research was conducted within two databases: Scopus and Web of Science. Accurate exclusion criteria were applied to screen the 1007 articles found (at the end 30 articles were selected). For each work, an evaluation of the model is made. Pros and cons of each work are detailed by analysing the aspects that can be improved so that an enjoyable interaction between robots and users can be established.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0436.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: registered nurses; social skills; interpersonal relations; communicative competences; postgraduate education; empathy; working environment
Online: 17 December 2020 (15:58:11 CET)
The aim of study was to assess empirical model of factors determining the attitude towards learning communicative competences among nurses participating in the program of speciality training courses. A research by method a cross-sectional study. A representative group of the 1,010 Polish registered nurses that took part in the postgraduate education course answered self-report survey (three instruments: NEO-PI-R questionnaire, Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) and Empathy Understanding Questionnaire of other people (KRE II)) between beginning of March to the end of May 2018, which was evaluated using path analysis. The research results conducted confirmed the soundness of the created theoretical model (χ2 = 0.278, P = 0.598, RMSEA <0.05). It was proved that learning communicative competences in nurses is determined with factors such as professional experience, emphatic tendencies and the intensity of agreeableness, whereby these factors are bound with each other creating a homogeneous network. The developed model demonstrated that the skills can be shaped most effectively on an individual attitude based on positive mentoring in work environment..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0335.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: volunteers; self-efficacy; optimism; empathy; psychological well-being; subjective well-being; incremental contribution
Online: 15 July 2020 (11:54:51 CEST)
Optimism and self-efficacy have been associated with psychological health. Empathy has also been found to promote positive functioning and to have a unique role in community health volunteering. This study investigated whether self-efficacy and optimism were associated with psychological and subjective well-being in a group of healthcare volunteers and whether empathy added incrementally to these associations. A sample of 160 Italian clown doctors volunteering in various hospitals completed self-report measures of self-efficacy, optimism, empathy, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being. Results indicated that self-efficacy and optimism were associated with both outcomes and that aspects of empathy, such as others’ perspective-taking and personal distress for others’ difficulties, incrementally added to these associations, although with opposite effects. The present study adds to previous research on the role of self-efficacy, optimism, and empathy for community health volunteers’ psychological health and offers suggestions regarding the training of this type of volunteer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1860.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: virtual reality; architectural design; social sustainability; cultural sustainability; inclusive design; diversity; cultural sensitivity; empathy
Online: 28 September 2023 (04:30:01 CEST)
This review article explores the convergence of virtual reality (VR) and architectural design from an inclusive lens. It underscores the crucial role of virtual reality (VR) in serving as a catalyst for the incorporation of social and cultural sustainability principles in architectural projects. The exploration is guided by inclusive design principles, which encompass several aspects such as accessibility, cultural sensitivity, diversity and inclusivity, user-centered design, and empathy. These concepts serve as the basis for further investigation into the potential of virtual reality (VR) technology to enhance and heighten these features within architectural design, therefore promoting the progress of social and cultural sustainability. The review article highlights the profound impact that virtual reality (VR) may have, going beyond mere visualisation to generate architectural experiences that are immersive, interactive, and empathetic. These experiences are designed to take into account diverse perspectives and needs.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0206.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: ethical robots; ethical artificial intelligence; ethical cybernetics; third-order cybernetics; philosophy of cybernetics; empathy; sapientocracy
Online: 17 February 2022 (10:45:33 CET)
Since 1974, when Heinz von Foerster made the distinction between “the cybernetics of observed systems” as first-order cybernetics (1oC) and “the cybernetics of observing systems” as second-order cybernetics (2oC), cybernetics has been dominated by this observer-centric paradigm that he claimed cannot be extended meaningfully to a third-order. Rather than attempting to extend his paradigm, we derive an alternative, model-centric paradigm from first principles of regulation that naturally extends to three orders, where the third order is ethical regulation. We thus consider a type of regulator that requires a third model and a third observer: If the third model is a model of acceptable (ethical) situations, then a third observer is a necessary element of the system’s “conscience” that prevents or detects any violations of the model of ethical situations. In this paradigm, the cybernetics of systems that are designed to exhibit ethical behaviour can be characterized as third-order cybernetics (3oC). By being able to extend the paradigm to include ethical systems, the model-centric paradigm brings clarity and utility that is not possible using the philosopher-friendly observer-centric paradigm and its under-specified (abstract) observers. Finally new definitions for cybernetics are proposed that clearly differentiate between the science and the philosophy, of cybernetics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1458.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: emotional intelligence; ChatGPT; GPT-4; EI; EQ; artificial empathy; experiential EI; strategic EI; 4 branch model of emotional intelligence
Online: 23 October 2023 (16:16:45 CEST)
Current neural network models can demonstrate reasonable-looking behavior, considered by some developers and researchers human-like. For example, a large language model GPT-3 is susceptible to human-like cognitive biases. Yet there is no data of such models solving emotional intelligence (EI) tasks. They are connected to the abilities that has been previously considered as specifically human EI is an important aspect of human communication. The ability to understand and respond to emotional cues is essential for effective communication. Therefore, it is crucial to determine the ways AI models such as ChatGPT demonstrate EI. The present research aims to measure the EI of GPT-4, a large language model trained by OpenAI. Russian version of the Mayer–Salovey–Caruzo Emotional Intelligence Test sections B, C, D, F, G and H were used in this research. High points were obtained in Understanding emotions scale and Strategic EI. Mean points are obtained in Managing emotions scale. Low and less reliable values are obtained in Using emotions to facilitate thought scale. Thus, GPT-4 seems already capable of identifying emotions in text and describing techniques for managing them. However, complex cases and irregular situations requiring emotions qualitative analysis would be a hard task for GPT-4.