REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0523.v1
Subject: Keywords: water ice; hydroxyl radicals; methanol; hydroxyl groups; spectral identity; confusion
Online: 31 May 2020 (21:58:06 CEST)
This literature review found that it is doubtful that there is water ice in the polar craters on the Moon. In the course of this review, the following findings were found: (1) The absorption strength of hydroxyl radicals and hydroxyl groups are all 2.9μm, so it is easy to confuse hydroxyl radicals and hydroxyl groups when interpreting M3 spectra data. I do not doubt the ability of LCROSS to detect OH from water, but only suspect that LCROSS is unable to distinguish between hydroxyl radicals from water ice and hydroxyl groups from Moon's methanol due to ignore their spectral identity; (2) The water brought by comets and asteroids and the one caused by solar wind has been exhausted by reacts with the widespread methanol on the Moon in the presence of Pt/α-MoC or Pt/C catalysts. These reacts form large amount of hydrogen, thus clarifying a question NASA raised that "Scientists have long speculated about the source of vast quantities of hydrogen that have been observed at the lunar poles"; (3) The vast quantities of hydrogen in lunar polar craters at extremely low temperatures might be in liquid or solid state now, easy to confuse with water ice. It seems that all our previous misconceptions about water ice in the lunar polar craters might be due to the neglect of the widespread chemical role of lunar methanol. It is necessary to conduct in-depth research in this field in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0188.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: rabbit; NIR tomoscopy; oxidative stress, blood serum parameters; error AKA confusion matrix
Online: 18 January 2019 (12:18:00 CET)
The aim of this study was to find a correlation between in vivo NIR scan patterns, oxidative status, and blood serum metabolites in rabbits fed diets protected or unprotected against oxidation. Rabbits does in groups of eight were fed for 9 weeks with diets containing linseed, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (LS), or linseed plus hazelnut skins, with antioxidant function (LS+HS), and palm oil, rich in saturated fatty acids (PO). The animals were examined at days 1, 31, and 63 using a smart SCÏO molecular sensor, a new miniaturized web-based wireless device, applied to the internal ear flap (NIR range 740-1070 nm). The hazelnut peels integrated diet protected the rabbits from the oxidative stress induced by the addition of unprotected polyunsaturated fats. NIR tomoscopy was variously correlated with serum parameters, lysozyme (R2=0.71), ROMs (0.47), cholesterol (0.49), triglycerides (0.40), and a multivariate Index of Oxidative Risk (0.67 [IOR]). The correlations suggested a close connection between the clustering of the diets according to the laboratory variables and the NIRS scan pattern clustering at the ending trial day, as shown by the highly significant odds ratios. Advantageous use of this simple, painless technique was evident in the planning phase, with no difference among the groups at the beginning of the study, but an effect size that evolved differently over time until the end of the study. In a practical validation of the SCÏO model in 92 commercial rabbit does, the average spread of the predicted IOR was 33% in lactating does (2.54±0.05) vs. dry does (1.91±0.07).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0485.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: anger; anxiety; confusion; depression; fatigue; forest therapy; mental health; vigor; volatile organic compounds
Online: 20 May 2021 (11:22:20 CEST)
Immersion in forest environments was shown to produce beneficial effects to human health, in particular psychophysical relaxation, so much that this practice is increasingly recognized as a form of integrative medicine. Limited evidence exists about both statistical significance and size of the effects conditioned on personal characteristics, as well as on the main external variables. The primary purpose of this study was to substantiate the very concept of forest therapy by means of the quantification and significance of the psychological effects, stratified by gender, age groups and place of residence. A preliminary qualitative analysis of the main determinants, in particular the method of conducting, the meteorological comfort and the concentration of volatile organic compounds in the forest atmosphere, was afforded. Seven forest therapy sessions were performed in late summer though early fall, resulting in 150 psychological self-assessment questionnaires administered before and after each session. The results were comparable or even better than others reported in the international literature. Moreover, preliminary evidence arose about different functionality towards specific psychological indexes conditioned at least on gender and age groups, as well as meteorological comfort, structured programs and, possibly, volatile organic compounds showed an impact on the outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0460.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: education for sustainable development; confusion; intelligent tutoring system (ITS); ASSISTments; machine learning; computer-based homework; algebra mathematics technology education; sustainable development
Online: 19 November 2018 (11:46:56 CET)
Incorporating substantial sustainable development issues into teaching and learning is the ultimate task of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The purpose of our study is to identify the confused students who have failed to master the skill(s) given by the tutors as a homework using Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). We have focused ASSISTments, an ITS in this study and scrutinized the skill-builder data using machine learning techniques and methods. We used seven candidate models that include: Naïve Bayes (NB), Generalized Linear Model (GLM), Logistic Regression (LR), Deep Learning (DL), Decision Tree (DT), Random Forest (RF), and Gradient Boosted Trees (XGBoost). We trained, validated and tested learning algorithms, performed stratified cross-validation and measured the performance of the models through various performance metrics i.e., ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic), Accuracy, Precision, Recall, F-Measure, Sensitivity & Specificity. We found GLM, DT & RF are high accuracies achieving classifiers. However, other perceptions such as detection of unexplored features that might be related to the forecasting of outputs can also boost the accuracy of the prediction model. Through machine learning methods, we identified the group of students which were confused attempting the homework exercise and can help students foster their knowledge, and talent to play a vital role in environmental development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0033.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: MV20/20; PoDFA; LiMCA; Business Analytics; anomaly detection; statistical process control; K-Means; DBSCAN; multi-layer perceptron; activation fucntion; inclusion; confusion matrix
Online: 19 August 2022 (06:03:08 CEST)
This paper presents work done as part of a transformation effort towards a greener and more sustainable Aluminium manufacturing plant. The effort includes reducing the carbon footprint by minimising waste and increasing operational efficiency. The contribution of this work includes the reduction of waste through the implementation of autonomous, real-time quality measurement and classification at an Aluminium casthouse. Data is collected from the MV20/20 which uses ultrasound pulses to detect molten Aluminium inclusions, which degrade the quality of the metal and cause subsequent metal waste. The sensor measures cleanliness, inclusion counts and distributions from 20 - 160 microns. The contribution of this work is in the development of business analytics to implement condition-based monitoring through anomaly detection, and to classify inclusion types for samples that failed. For anomaly detection, multivariate K-Means and DBSCAN algorithms are compared as they have been proven to work in a wide range of datasets. For classification, a two-stage classifier is implemented. The first stage classifies the success or failure of the sample, while the second stage classifies the inclusion responsible for the failed sample. The algorithms considered include logistic regression, support vector machine, multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function network. The multi-layer perceptron offers the best performance using k-fold cross-validation, and is further tuned using grid search to explore the possibility of an even better performance. The results reveal that the model has achieved a global maximum in performance. Recommendations include the integration of additional sensor systems and the improvements in quality assurance practices.