ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer treatment; chlorin; Photodynamic therapy (PDT); photosensitizer; tumor size
Online: 3 May 2018 (12:16:15 CEST)
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with a suitable photosensitizer molecule is a promising anticancer treatment. We evaluated two chlorin molecules as potential photosensitizers, methyl pyropheophorbide a (MPPa) and N-methoxyl purpurinimide (NMPi), against A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro as well as in A549 tumor-bearing mice in vivo. Cell viability, microscopy, and FACS analyses were performed for the in vitro studies. MPPa and NMPi showed high phototoxicity in vitro, which was dependent on the concentration of the photosensitizers as well as the light irradiation time. In the animal study, tumor volume change, tumor surface alterations, and H&E and TUNEL staining analyses were performed and compared between small (tumor volume of <50 mm3) and large (tumor volume of >50 mm3) size of initial tumors. MPPa and NMPi showed high anticancer efficacy against small-size tumors, indicating that early treatment with PDT is effective. Especially, repeated two times PDT with NMPi allowed almost complete eradication against small-size tumors. However, MPPa and NMPi were not effective against large-size tumors. In conclusion, the two chlorin derivatives, MPPa and NMPi, show good anticancer efficacy as promising photosensitizers for PDT in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, their activity in vivo was significantly dependent on the initial tumor size in mice, which confirms the importance of early cancer treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0032.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: water-solubility; porphyrin; chlorin; bacteriochlorin; PEGylation; bioconjugation; photodynamic therapy; bioimaging
Online: 6 June 2017 (07:51:04 CEST)
The increasing popularity of porphyrins and hydroporphyrins for application in a variety of biomedical (photodynamic therapy, fluorescence tagging and imaging, photoacoustic imaging) and technical (chemosensing, catalysis, light harvesting) applications is also associated with the growing number of methodologies that enable their solubilization in aqueous media. Natively, the vast majority of synthetic porphyrinic compounds are not water-soluble. Moreover, any water-solubility imposes several restrictions on the synthetic chemist on when to install solubilizing groups in the synthetic sequence, and how to isolate and purify these compounds. This review summarizes the chemical modifications to render synthetic porphyrins water-soluble, with a focus on the work since 2000. Where available, practical data such as solubility, indicators for the degree of aggregation, and special notes for the practicioner are listed. We hope that this review will guide synthetic chemists through the many strategies known to make porphyrins and hydroporphyrins water soluble.