REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0189.v4
Online: 28 December 2018 (04:39:00 CET)
The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the articles that addressed the effect BA or carnosine supplementation on physical exercise (PE)-induced oxidative stress (OS). Before May 2018 we searched throughout PubMed, CAPES Periodic and SPORTDiscus human model peer review, randomized control studies with chronic BA or carnosine supplementation on PE-induced OS. A total of 128 citations were found. Only four articles met criteria for inclusion. All four studies used healthy young sedentary, recreationally active or athletic participants. After a chronic BA or carnosine supplementation, the studies evaluated PE-induced OS both immediately and several hours after exercise (0.5 to 48 h). In response to PE-induced OS, when compared to placebo, BA/carnosine supplementation increased total antioxidant capacity [TAC; Effect Size (ES) = 0.35, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.06 to 0.65, p = 0.02] and glutathione (GSH; ES = 0.75, 95% CI 0.32 to 1.19, p = 0.0007) concentrations while decreased direct OS markers (ES = −1.19, 95% CI −1.48 to −0.80, p < 0.01) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (ES = − 0.58, 95% CI −1.10 to −0.06, p = 0.03). BA or carnosine supplementation did not prevent the increase in indirect OS markers (ES: 0.06, 95% CI −0.38 to 0.500, p = 0.80). In humans, following PE-induced OS, initial treatment trials of BA or carnosine supplementation seemed to increase TAC and GSH concentrations, while decreasing SOD activity. Also, albeit mitigating the acute increase in direct OS markers (reactive nitrogen and oxygen species), treatment did not decrease measured values of indirect OS markers (peroxidation or molecule oxidation).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0105.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: osteoarthritis; carnosine; hyaluronic acid; inflammation; oxidative stress
Online: 11 January 2020 (11:17:18 CET)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease that currently has no cure. There are numerous studies showing that carnosine and hyaluronic acid (HA) have a positive pharmacological action during joint inflammation. For this reason, the goal of this research was to discover the protective effect of a new HA+Carnosine formulation (FidHycarn) on the inflammatory response and on the cartilage degradation in in vivo experimental model of OA. This model was induced by a single intra-articular (i.ar.) injection of 25µl normal saline having 1mg of monosodium iodoacetate solution (MIA) in the knee joint. MIA injection caused histological alterations and degradation of cartilage as well as behavioral changes. Oral treatment with FidHycarn ameliorated the macroscopic signs, improved thermal hyperalgesia and weight distribution of hind paw as well as decreased histological and radiographic alterations. The oxidative damage was analyzed by evaluating the levels of nitrotyrosine and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that were significantly reduced in FidHycarn rats. Moreover, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were also significantly reduced by FidHycarn. However, interestingly, in more cases, the effects of FidHycarn were not statistically different to Naproxen used as positive control. Thus, the new formulation containing Carnosine and HA could represent an interesting therapeutic strategy to combat osteoarthritis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0486.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: COVID-19; carnosine; angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2); practitioner; molecular docking; modeling
Online: 23 October 2020 (10:44:07 CEST)
Aims: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) plays an important role in the entry of coronaviruses into host cells. This paper described how carnosine, a naturally occurring supplement, can be an effective drug candidate for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on the basis of molecular docking and modeling to host ACE2 co-crystallized with COVID-19 spike protein. Methods: First, the starting point was ACE2 inhibitors and their structure-activity relationship (SAR). Next, chemical similarity (or diversity) and PubMed searches made it possible to repurpose and assess approved or experimental drugs for COVID-19. In parallel, at all stages, authors performed bioactivity scoring to assess potential repurposed inhibitors at ACE2. Finally, investigators performed molecular docking and modeling of the identified drug candidate to host ACE2 co-crystallized with COVID-19 spike protein. Results: Carnosine emerged as the best known drug candidate to match ACE2 inhibitor structure. Preliminary docking was more optimal to ACE2 than the known typical angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 (ACE1) inhibitor (enalapril) and quite comparable to known or presumed ACE2 inhibitors. Viral spike protein elements binding to ACE2 were retained in the best carnosine pose in SwissDock at 1.75 Angstroms. Out of the three main areas of attachment expected to the co-crystallized protein structure, carnosine bind with higher affinity to two compared to the known ACE2 active site. LibDock score was 92.40 for site 3, 90.88 for site 1, and inside the active site 85.49. Conclusion: Carnosine has promising inhibitory interactions with host ACE2 co-crystallized with COVID-19 spike protein and hence could offer potential mitigating effect against current COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0060.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: carnosine; glioblastoma; fibroblasts; imidazole-containing compounds; cell viability; high per-formance liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry
Online: 3 March 2022 (10:31:32 CET)
The naturally occurring dipeptide carnosine (β alanyl L histidine) specifically attenuates tumor growth. Here, we asked whether other small imidazole containing compounds also affect viability of tumor cells without affecting non-malignant cells, and whether formation of histamine is involved. Patient-derived fibroblasts and glioblastoma cells were treated with carnosine, L alanyl L histidine (LA-LH), ß alanyl L alanine, L histidine, histamine, imidazole, β alanine and L alanine. Cell viability was assessed by cell-based assays and microscopy. The intracellular release of L histidine and formation of histamine was investigated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled Mass Spectrometry. Whereas carnosine and LA LH inhibited tumor cell growth with minor effects on fibroblasts, L-histidine, histamine and imidazole affected viability in both cell types. Compounds without imidazole moiety did not diminish viability. In the presence of LA LH but not in the presence of carnosine a significant rise of intracellular amounts of histidine was detected in all cells. Formation of histamine was not detectable in the presence of carnosine, LA LH or histidine. In conclusion, the imidazole moiety of carnosine contributes to its anti-neoplastic effect, which is also seen in the presence of histidine and LA LH. Despite histamine had a strong effect on cell viability, formation of histamine is not responsible for the effects on cell viability of carnosine, LA LH and histidine.