ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0082.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Climate Change; Climate-Smart; Climate-Smart Agroforestry; Agriculture
Online: 2 March 2021 (11:47:29 CET)
This study assessed stakeholders’ perception on the prospects and challenges of practising Climate–Smart Agroforestry in the Asunafo North Municipal Assembly in the Ahafo Region in Ghana. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to collect cross-sectional data from 250 cocoa, food and cash crop farmers drawn from four (4) communities using simple random sampling. And nine (9) in-depth interviews were also conducted to elicit key stakeholder perspectives. Stakeholders also held the view that Climate-Smart Agroforestry encourages the use of stress-tolerant crop varieties, increase income, improve soil productivity, diversify farm produce, urges the reduction of input supply and recommends the timely usage of the inputs, ensures better market system for farm produce, cost of production decreases during the practice of Agroforestry, agro-ecological functions and Climate-Smart Agroforestry can best help adapt to the threats of climate change in the agriculture sector. The challenges included insecure tree ownership right, fast-declining soil fertility and long maturity period of Agroforestry trees, land tenure issues, illegal tree logging (chainsaw operators) on farms, lack of practical understanding of the approach, inadequate knowledge and information and inadequate supportive facilities in the study area. The study recommends further studies on the existing forest policy and legislations and its implications on the practice and adoption of Climate-Smart Agroforestry in respond to climate change in the area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0220.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: agroforestry; Populus; Ulmus; cotton; corn; microclimate; evapotranspiration; irrigation
Online: 22 June 2019 (11:30:43 CEST)
Across Central Asia, agriculture largely depends on irrigation due to arid and semi-arid climatic conditions. Water is abstracted from rivers, which are largely fed by glacier melt. In the course of climate change, glaciers melt down so that a reduced glacier volume and reduced water runoffs are expected being available for irrigation. Tree wind breaks are one option to reduce water consumption in irrigated agriculture and build resilience against climate change. This paper therefore assessed water consumption of major crops (cotton, wheat, corn, rice, potato, and barley) in Kyrgyzstan and adjacent areas in combination with tree wind breaks. Crop water consumption was assessed through the Penman Monteith approach. Tree wind break types investigated were single rows from poplars and multiple rows with undergrowth by elm and poplar, respectively. Tree water consumption was determined through sapflow measurements. Seasonal ETo for field crops was 876 mm to 995 mm without wind breaks and dropped to less than half through multiple row wind breaks with undergrowth (50 m spacing). Tree water consumption was 1125 mm to 1558 mm for poplar and 435 mm for elm. Among the wind break crop systems, elm wind breaks resulted in highest reductions of water consumption, followed by single row poplars, at spacing of 50 m and 100 m, respectively. Yet, elm grows much slower than poplar so that poplars might be more attractive for farmers. Furthermore, single row wind breaks might by much easier to be integrated into the agrarian landscape, as they consume less space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0262.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: karst; Agroforestry; soil fractal dimension; soil physicochemical properties; soil nutrients
Online: 15 September 2021 (14:07:50 CEST)
Suitable soil structure and nutrient security are important for plant growth and development, characteristics of soil fractal dimension and distribution of physical and chemical properties and their interactions play an important role in studying the stability of soil structure and water and fertilizer cycles. As a sustainable management model, intercropping has positive benefits for erosion control, spatial optimization of resources, as well as improving system productivity. The effects of four intercropping methods on soil fractal dimension and physicochemical properties were investigated by intercropping Salvia miltiorrhiza with forage and S. miltiorrhiza with forest under typical karst rock desertification habitats in Guizhou. The results showed that soil nutrient content of intercropping was significantly higher than that of monoculture, the organic carbon content of soil grown under forest is higher than other treatments, and there was a non-significant change in soil water content of intercropping compared with monoculture. The soil fine-grained matter of intercropping was significantly higher than that of monoculture, while the soil fractal dimension showed a tendency to become larger with the increase of fine-grained matter. The intercropping planting, due to its component types and spatial and temporal configurations, leads to differences in soil water and fertilizer interactions, which can be combined with other ecological restoration measures to optimize the composite model and jointly promote the restoration and development of ecologically fragile areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0045.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: adoption; land-use; degradation; ethnobotany; networking; agroforestry; dry semi-deciduous
Online: 7 November 2017 (04:06:23 CET)
Bamboo agroforestry is currently being promoted as a viable land use option to reduce dependence on natural forest for wood fuels in Ghana. To align the design and introduction of bamboo agroforestry in conformity with farmers’ needs, perceptions, skills and local cultural practices, information on its acceptability and adoption potential among farmers is necessary. It is therefore the objective of this study to (1) describe bamboo ethnobotany and (2) assess socioeconomic factors that affect the acceptability and adoption of bamboo and its integration into farming practices. Accordingly, information has been collected from 200 farmers in the dry semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana. The study identified the socioeconomic risks and uncertainties as well as biophysical factors that are likely to influence the potential adoption of bamboo agroforestry in the study region. Gender, age, farmers’ known uses of bamboo, the practice of leaving trees on farmlands, farmers’ networking and access to extension services, land availability and ownership by farmers were identified as suitable predictor variables for the adoption of bamboo agroforestry. It is envisaged that bamboo agroforestry is a good bet in the DSFZ though there is the need to explore domestic energy (fuelwood) provision and substitution potential in order to have a broader picture of the technology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0287.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: agroforestry activities; anthropogenic global warming; conservation policies; forest management; forest products
Online: 23 May 2022 (06:09:21 CEST)
Indigenous trees have great economic potential and ecological benefits for enhancing environmental prosperity, mostly in forestry and the forest products sector in the developing countries of Sub-Sahara Africa. The baobab (Adansonia Digitata L.) is known as the African green jewel in both fruit production and medicinal benefits also remarkable for so many forest products exported across the world. Research conducted in the different Sub-Saharan African sub-regions has shown this iconic tree with a majestic outlook has a priority tree species for local and foreign use and conservation. However, data on the benefits and conservation of baobab trees in Africa, especially the Sub-Saharan countries is limited. This study aimed to assess the predominant geo-graphical distribution of the tree, the indigenous (cultural, socio-economic, ecological, and medical/health) benefits, and the conservation strategies of the baobab resources in Sub-Saharan Africa. The baobab tree's succulent roots, bulbs, branches, fruit, pods, foliage, and petals are all nourishing. Baobab parts have been used for diverse reasons in Africa, some countries of Asia, and Europe for the past two centuries due to their medicinal well-being properties. In addition, the medicinal applications of the plant parts are discussed. Many authors have highlighted the baobab tree as one of the most important trees to be saved and localized in Africa because of its high indigenous usage and commercial worth. Anthropogenic global warming may induce a drop in baobab species, which could inflict negative impacts on African economies. As a result, it's critical to research the species' likely future distribution and develop conservation policies. Literature was consulted for records and availability of this tree in the Western, Central, Eastern, and Southern African species records and it was also analyzed what percentage of the current environment would be appropriate in the future. Recent studies suggested that farmers and the locals be provided free seeds and seedlings to encourage biological rejuvenation to maximize the plant's potential, people should be informed about the additional uses of baobab that have been discovered. Individuals must also be educated on simple sustainable agroforestry activities that can be performed in plant and forest management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0299.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Biomass; Carbon pool; Indigenous agroforestry system; Coffee; Enset; South-eastern Ethiopia
Online: 22 March 2022 (10:51:01 CET)
The role of agroforestry systems in providing ecosystem services is very crucial. The most significant increase in carbon (C) storage is often achieved by moving from lower biomass land-use systems to tree-based systems like agroforestry (AF). However, estimation of carbon stocks in indigenous agroforestry systems of South-eastern Rift- valley landscapes, Ethiopia the data are scarce. The study was aimed to investigate the biomass, biomass carbon (BC), and soil organic carbon (SOC) stock of Enset based, Enset-Coffee based, and Coffee-Fruit tree-Enset based agroforestry systems. Comparison of SOC stock of agroforestry systems against their adjacent monocropping farms was also investigated. The study was conducted in three selected sites of the Dilla Zuria district of Gedeo zone. Twenty farms (total of 60) representative of each AF system were randomly selected, inventoried and biomass C stocks estimated. Ten adjacent mono-cropping farms which were related to each AF system were selected in a purposive manner for comparison of SOC stock. Inventory and soil sampling were employed in the 10×10 m farm plot. The mean aboveground biomass ranged from 81.1 t ha-1 to 255.9 t ha-1 and for belowground biomass from 26.9 t ha-1 to 72.2 t ha-1. The highest C stock was found in Coffee-Fruit tree-Enset based (233.3±81.0 t ha-1), and the lowest was in Coffee-Enset based agroforestry system (190.1±29.8 t ha-1). The result showed that SOC stocks were not statistically significant between the three AF systems, although they showed a significant difference in their BC stock. The AF systems' C stocks are substantially higher than those reported for tropical forests and other AF systems. The SOC of AF systems was significantly higher than the ones for the adjacent monocropped farms. Therefore, it is possible to deduce that AF systems are storing significant amount of C and contributing to climate change mitigation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0094.v3
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Agroforestry; ecosystem services; measurable criteria; certification standard; biodiversity; agroecosystem; regenerative agriculture
Online: 12 September 2018 (13:56:22 CEST)
Agroforestry is increasingly being recognized as a holistic food production system that can have numerous significant environmental, economic, and social benefits. This growing recognition is paralleled in the U.S. by the budding interest in regenerative agriculture and motivation to certify regenerative practices. Current efforts to develop a regenerative agriculture certification offer an opportunity to consider agroforestry’s role in furthering regenerative goals. To understand this opportunity, we first examine how agroforestry practices can advance regenerative agriculture’s five core environmental concerns: soil fertility and health, water quality, biodiversity, ecosystem health, and carbon sequestration. Next, we review a subset of certification programs, standards, guidelines, and associated scientific literature to understand existing efforts to standardize agroforestry. We determine that development of an agroforestry standard alongside current efforts to certify regenerative agriculture offers an opportunity to leverage common goals and strengths of each. Additionally, we determine that there is a lack of standards with measurable criteria available for agroforestry, particularly in temperate locations. Lastly, we propose a framework and general, measurable criteria for an agroforestry standard that could potentially be implemented as a standalone standard or built into existing agriculture, forestry, or resource conservation certification programs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0451.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: economic agroforestry zone; Salix spp.; Populus spp.; Alnus spp.; short rotation coppice (SRC); short rotation forestry (SRF); energy wood.
Online: 31 October 2022 (09:26:58 CET)
The main goal of the review is to provide a summary and an assessment of the potential of fast-growing tree species for suitable transformation of agroforestry areas for biomass production in the Baltic Sea region. The article summarizes the research on the management process of agroforestry zones by establishing short rotation plantations with tree species Salix spp., Populus spp., Alnus spp. and looks at the perspectives of planning of these zones as biomass producers. Short rotation forestry (SRF) with a combination of species and a rotation time of 15 to 30 years, depending on the species used, is the most suitable approach for management of these agroforestry zones. Willows (Salix spp.) and poplars (Populus spp.) are suitable for short rotation coppice (SRC), as these tree species can be harvested at much shorter intervals, respectively, 1–5 and 4–10 years, facilitating their use in agricultural systems. In Alnus spp. short rotation plantation the life cycle for energy wood production is assumed to be 15-30 years. The black alder plantations in agroforestry zones are used for sawnwood and firewood production, with a rotation span of 20–40 years. Calculated economic agroforestry zone repayment period is about 10-15 years, if costs and prices as in 2021 are used.