REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0242.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Translational Medicine; Machine Learning; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 18 October 2021 (11:06:18 CEST)
The huge advancement of Internet web facilities as well as the progress in computing and algorithm development, along with current innovations regarding high-throughput techniques enables the scientific community to gain access to biological datasets, clinical data, and several databases containing billions of information concerning scientific knowledge. Consequently, during the last decade the system for managing, analyzing, processing and extrapolating information from scientific data has been considerably modified in several fields including the medical one. As a consequence of the mentioned scenario, scientific vocabulary was enriched by novel lexicons such as Machine Learning (ML)/Deep Learning (DL) and overall Artificial Intelligence (AI). Beyond the terminology, these computational techniques are revolutionizing the scientific research in drug discovery pitch, from the preclinical studies to clinical investigation. Interestingly, between preclinical and clinical research, the translational research is benefitting from computer-based approaches, transforming the design and execution of the translational research, resulting in breakthroughs for advancing human health. Accordingly, in this review article, we analyze the most advanced applications of AI in translational medicine, providing an up-to-date outlook regarding this emerging field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0756.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: 3D in vitro models; eye research; in silico analysis; eye anatomy
Online: 26 October 2020 (11:45:00 CET)
Human eye is a specialized organ with complex anatomy and physiology, because it is characterized by different cell types with specific physiological functions. Given the complexity of the eye, ocular tissues are finely organized and orchestrated. In the last few years many in vitro models have been developed, in order to meet the 3Rs principle (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) for eye toxicity testing. This procedure is highly necessary to ensure that the risks associated with ophthalmic products meet appropriate safety criteria. In vitro preclinical testing is now a well-established practice of significant importance for evaluating the efficacy and safety of cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical products. Along with in vitro testing, also computational procedures, herein described, for evaluating the pharmacological profile of potential ocular drug candidates including their toxicity, are in rapid expansion. In this review the ocular cell types and functionality are described providing an overview about the scientific challenge for the development of three-dimensional in vitro models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Citrus flavonoids; naringin; naringenin; pectin; byproducts; anti-ischemic myocardial protection; hydrodynamic cavitation
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:54:33 CEST)
Citrus flavonoids are well-known for beneficial effects at the cardiovascular and cardio-metabolic level, but often the encouraging in vitro results are not confirmed by in vivo approaches; also clinical trials are inconsistent. The limited bioavailability of them can be, at least in part, the reason of these discrepancies. Therefore many efforts were performed towards the improvement of their bioavailability. Hydrodynamic cavitation methods were successfully applied to the extraction of byproducts of the Citrus fruits industry, showing high process yields and affording stable phytocomplexes, known as IntegroPectin, endowed with great amounts of bioactive compounds and high water solubility. Cardioprotective effects of grapefruit IntegroPectin were evaluated by an ex vivo ischemia/reperfusion protocol. A further pharmacological characterization was carried out to assess the involvement of mitochondrial potassium channels. Grapefruit IntegroPectin, where naringin represented 98% of flavonoids, showed anti-ischemic cardioprotective activity, better than pure naringenin (the bioactive aglycone of naringin). On cardiac isolated mitochondria, this extract confirmed that naringenin/naringin were involved in the activation of mitochondrial potassium channels. The hydrodynamic cavitation-based extraction confirmed a valuable opportunity for the exploitation of Citrus fruits waste, with the end product presenting high levels of Citrus flavonoids and an improved bioaccessibility that enhances its nutraceutical and economic value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0422.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: extravirgin olive oil; cryogen; Citrus genus; phytochemical; nutraceutical value; Citrus x aurantium; Citrus limon; cardiovascular protection
Online: 24 April 2020 (03:03:29 CEST)
Recently the use of food by products as natural sources of biologically active substances has been extensively investigated especially for the development of functional foods fortified with natural antioxidants. Due to their content of bioactive compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids and limonoids, Citrus peels could be suitable to formulate enriched olive oils able to boost a healthy nutrition. The aim of this study was: (i) to determine the compositional and sensory profiles of the Citrus olive oil and (ii) to evaluate its nutraceutical properties in rats with high fat diet-induced-metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress. The results obtained show the potential of using the Citrus peels as a source of bioactive compounds to improve the sensory profile as well as the phytochemical composition of olive oil. We demonstrated that the production system of C. aurantium olive oil and C. limon olive oil improves their organoleptic properties without altering their beneficial effects, which, like control extra virgin olive oil, showed protective effects on glucose and serum lipid levels, metabolic activity of adipocytes, myocardial tissue functionality, oxidative stress markers and endothelial function at blood vessel level.