ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0029.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: PLUS model; InVEST model; Land use; Habitat quality; Temperate desert subzone of Ordos Plateau
Online: 1 June 2023 (05:33:45 CEST)
Habitat quality has great significance for regional ecological conservation and human welfare. In this study, we evaluated the spatial and temporal characteristics of land use and habitat quality in the temperate desert sub-region of Ordos Plateau using patch-generating land use simulation (PLUS) and integrated valuation of ecosystem services and trade-offs (InVEST) models. From 2000 to 2020, the areas of grassland, cropland, and unused land in the study area increased significantly; the areas of water bodies and woodland increased slightly; and the area of wasteland decreased significantly. Moreover, the habitat quality in the temperate desert subzone of the Ordos Plateau showed a trend of increasing and then decreasing from 2000 to 2020. The areas of lower and low habitat quality first decreased and then increased, and the overall area decreased over time. Conversely, the areas of high and higher habitat quality initially increased and then decreased, and the overall area increased over time. The area of medium habitat quality first decreased and then increased, although the overall change was minimal. Based on the PLUS model, the habitat quality of the study area in 2025 predicted under the natural development scenario was compared with that predicted under the ecological conservation scenario, showing higher habitat quality and lower habitat degradation under the ecological conservation development scenario. These results can be used to provide a scientific basis and decision reference for the sustainable use of land resources and high-quality socio-economic development in the temperate desert sub-region of the Ordos Plateau.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0173.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: fire risk; forest fire; ecohydrology; Eucalyptus forest; temperate rainforest
Online: 4 March 2021 (18:17:00 CET)
Fire risk can be defined as the probability that a fire will spread. Reliable monitoring of fire risk is essential for effective landscape management. Compilation of fire risk records enable identification of seasonal and inter-annual patterns and provide a baseline to evaluate the trajectories in response to climate change. Typically, fire risk is estimated from meteorological data. In regions with sparse meteorological station coverage environmental proxies provide important additional data stream for estimating past and current fire risk. Here we use a 60-year record of daily flows from two rivers (Franklin and Davey) in the remote Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area (TWWHA) to characterize seasonal patterns in fire risk in temperate Eucalyptus and rainforests. We show that river flows are strongly related to landscape soil moisture estimates derived from down-scaled re-analysis of meteorological data available since 1990. To identify river flow thresholds where forests are likely to burn, we relate river flows to known forest fires that have occurred in the previously defined ecohydrological domains that surround the Franklin and Davey catchments. Our analysis shows that the fire season in the TWWHA is centered on February (70% of all years below the median threshold), with shoulders on December-January and March. Since 1954 forest fire can occur in at least one month for all but four summers in the ecohydrological domain that includes the Franklin catchment, and since 1964 fire fires could occur in at least one month in every summer in the ecohydrological domain that includes the Davey catchment. Our analysis shows that mangers can use river flows as a simple index that provide a landscape-scale forest fire risk in the TWWHA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0162.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: crop residues; water regime; crop rotation; temperate region
Online: 17 January 2018 (13:00:39 CET)
This study was carried out at Kita-mura near Bibai located in central Hokkaido, Japan, with the intention of investigating the effects of different agronomical managements on CH4 emissions from paddy fields on mineral soil over peat under farmers’ actual management conditions in the snowy temperate region. Four fields were studied, including two fields with twice drainage (D1-M and D2-M) and also a single-drainage field (D3-S) under single-cropping yr-1 and a paddy-fallow-paddy crop rotation as their systems. The other field was under single cropping yr-1 with continuous flooding (CF-R) in the pattern of soybean (upland crop)-fallow-paddy. The mineral-soil thickness of these soil-dressed peatland fields varied from 20 to 47 cm. The amount of crop residues leftover in the fields ranged from 277 to 751 g dry matter m−2. Total CH4 emissions ranged from 25.3 to 116 g CH4-C m−2 per growing season. There was a significant relationship between crop-residue carbon (C) and total CH4 emissions during the rice-growing season. This study, therefore, CH4 fluxes from paddy soils in that there was a strong interaction between readily available C source for methanogens and anaerobic conditions created by water management. Despite the differences in water regime and soil type, the average values of straw’s efficiency on CH4 production in this study were significantly higher than those of southern Japan and statistically identical with central Hokkaido. Our results suggest that the environmental conditions of central Hokkaido in association with crop-residue management had a significant influence on CH4 emission from paddy fields on mineral soil over peat. Rotation soybean (upland)-to-paddy followed by drainage twice practices also largely reduces CH4 emission. However, mineral-soil dressing on peat could have a significant impact to suppress CH4 emission from beneath the peat reservoir.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0005.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: non-freezing; temperate lake; heat budget; heat storage; global warming
Online: 2 January 2018 (08:17:58 CET)
A temperate deep lake, Lake Kuttara, Hokkaido, Japan (148 m deep at maximum) was completely frozen every winter in the 20th century. However, unfrozen conditions of the lake over winter occurred four times in the 21st century, which is probably due to global warming. In order to understand how thermal regime of the lake responds to climate change, its heat storage change was calculated by estimating heat budget of the lake and monitoring water temperature at the deepest point for September 2012–June 2016. As a result, temporal change of the heat storage from the heat budget was very consistent with that from the direct temperature measurement (determination coefficient R2 = 0.827). The 1978–2017 data at a meteorological station near Kuttara indicated that there are significant (less than 5% level) long-term trends for air temperature (0.024 °C/yr) and wind speed (−0.010 m/s/yr). A sensitivity analysis for the heat storage from the heat budget estimate and an estimate of return periods for mean air temperature in mid-winter allow us to conclude that the lake could be unfrozen once per about two year in a decade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0426.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Cold temperate zone; moose; habitat; landscape pattern; landscape ecological risk
Online: 6 July 2023 (11:45:21 CEST)
The change of habitat pattern is one of the key factors affecting the survival of moose population. The study of habitat landscape pattern is the key to protect Chinese cold temperate forest moose population and monitor the global distribution of moose. By means of MaxEnt model, landscape index calculation and ecological risk assessment model, combined with field survey and infrared camera monitoring data from April 2014 to January 2023, the author evaluated the habitat suitability of moose population in Nanwenghe National Nature Reserve of the Great Khingan Mountains, and divided the range of moose habitat based on the logical threshold of the model. The landscape pattern index of moose habitat was calculated by Fragstats software and a landscape ecological risk assessment model was established to analyze the landscape pattern and ecological risk dynamic changes of moose habitat in 2015 and 2020. The results showed that under the premise of global warming, the habitat landscape contagion index decreased by 4.53 and the split index increased by 4.86 from 2015 to 2020. In terms of ecological risk: the area of low ecological risk areas increased by 0.88%; the area of medium ecological risk areas decreased by 1.11%; and the area of higher ecological risk areas increased by 0.23%. The fragmentation risk of landscape pattern of moose habitat tends to increase, the preferred patch type is dispersed, the degree of aggregation is low, and the risk of patch type transformation increases. And the middle and high ecological risk areas are mainly concentrated in the river area and its nearby forests, showing a fine and scattered distribution. Under the interference of global warming and human activities, the fragmenta-tion trend of moose habitat in the study area is increasing, and the habitat quality is declining, which is likely to cause moose population migration. For this reason, the author believes that the whole cold temperate forest is likely to face the risk of increasing the transformation trend of dominant patch types in the cold temperate coniferous forest region mainly caused by global warming, resulting in an in-crease in the risk of habitat fragmentation. While the distribution range of moose is reduced, it has a significant impact on the diversity and ecological integrity of the whole cold temperate forest ecosystem. This study is helpful for human beings to strengthen their awareness of forest and river protection, avoid further intervention in more human activities, and formulate a reasonable plan for forest protec-tion and sustainable development in cold temperate zones. to provide theoretical reference for effective monitoring and protection of cold temperate forest and moose population dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0094.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Podo virus; temperate phages; Short tail phages, novel phage terminase, Lederbergvirus
Online: 3 October 2023 (08:19:22 CEST)
Salmonella enterica includes enteric pathogens of zoonotic potential, possessing one of the largest pools of temperate phages in their genomes. One such class of phages previously called Podoviridae (Now genera placed directly under class Caudoviricetes temporarily) is the largest group of temperate phages that lysogenize clinically and economically important Salmonella enterica serovars. These phages are capable of generalized transduction and are well known for carrying foreign DNA (mobile genetic elements and resistance genes) to new bacterial species that play a major role in the evolution, pathogenicity, and host adaptability of Salmonella serovars. Here we report a novel species of podo viruses; Salmonella phage BIS08P22 (BIS08) that infects Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SE-BS17 (Acc. NO: MZ503545). Phage BIS08 was viable only at biological pH and temperature (pH7 and 37 °C) and features 41,574 -base pair (bp) linear ds DNA genome with 47% GC content. It encodes 73 putative Open Reading Frames (ORFs), has a mosaic arrangement, and shares only 16 core genes with its closest homologs. BIS08 genome possesses only 52 % homology (genome-wide Nucleotide homology by VIRIDIC analysis) with members of the genus Lederbergvirus which is not sufficient to place it in the same genus. This phage has a unique terminase enzyme (DNA packaging motor) with no nucleotide and protein homology with any known member of the Lederbergvirus genus. We carried out a detailed phylogenetic and genome analysis of this novel phage and proposed its placement in a new genus. Our study also suggests a revision in the classification of the genus Lederbergvirus. We also performed in silico structural analysis of the BIS08 unique terminase enzyme comparing it to its close homologs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0018.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: temperate forests; species richness; lineage diversity; phylogenetic diversity; United States; trees; TILD
Online: 13 February 2019 (10:15:50 CET)
Lineage diversity can refer to the number of genetic lineages within species or to the number of deeper evolutionary lineages, such as genera or families, within a community. Community lineage diversity (CLD) is of interest to ecologists, evolutionary biologists, biogeographers, and those setting conservation priorities. Despite its relevance, it is not clear how to best quantify CLD. With North American tree communities as an example, we test which taxonomic and phylogenetic metrics best measure CLD. We find that phylogenetic metrics outperform taxonomic metrics. Faith’s phylogenetic diversity performs well, but is skewed towards the number of lineages in recent time. The best metric is newly derived here, and termed time integrated lineage diversity (TILD). Mapping the lineage diversity of tree communities across the contiguous United States, we find a spatial pattern differing from that of species richness in key areas. The Pacific Northwest, Great Lakes Region, state of Maine, and south-eastern piedmont and coastal plain forests all emerge as areas high in lineage diversity, but relatively lower in species richness. We urge the consideration of lineage diversity, as well as species richness, when setting conservation priorities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1928.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Deforestation; Land-use change; Surface albedo; Diurnal thermal range; Temperate region; México.
Online: 26 May 2023 (11:04:10 CEST)
Deforestation is an important environmental problem in México and a key promoter of regional climate change through modifying the surface albedo. The objective of this research was to characterize the impact of deforestation and land use changes on surface albedo (α) and climate patterns in the Municipality of Tapalpa, Jalisco, México between the years 2014 and 2021. The main land cover types are coniferous forests (CF), oak and gallery woodlands (OGW), and annual agriculture (AA); which represent more than 88% of the regional territory (1066.03 km2). We used 2014 and 2021 Landsat 8 OLI images with topographic and atmospheric correction, in order to develop an inventory of albedo values for each land cover type in both time scenarios. Albedo images were generated by using the equation proposed by Liang in 2001, which is based on the reflectance of the bands 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7. Differences in albedo values were calculated between the years 2014 and 2021, and those differences were correlated with variations in climate parameters, for which we used climate data derived from the WRF model. In addition, the different land use changes found were classified in terms of triggers for increasing or decreasing surface albedo. Results showed that between 2014 and 2021, at least 38 events of land use change or deforestation occurred, with albedo increments between 1 and 11%, which triggered an average increment of 0.57% of the regional surface albedo in comparison to 2014 scenario. From 2014 to 2021, the albedo for CF, OGW, and AA, increased significantly (p<0.001; Mann-Whitney U Test) by 79, 12, and 9%, respectively. In addition, the regional albedo increment was found to be significant and negatively correlated (p<0.01 Spearman’s coefficient) with relative humidity (RH), maximum temperature (Tmax), minimum temperature (Tmin), and diurnal thermal range (DTR). The decrease in the regional values of relative humidity in 2021, occurred even when in that year the annual precipitation levels were higher than those of 2014, hence, reinforcing the fact of a possible climatic effect of the regional albedo changes. Conversion of CF and OGW into AA, perennial agriculture (PA), or grassland (GR) always yielded an albedo increment, whilst the conversion of AA to irrigation agriculture or PA triggered a decrease in albedo, and finally, the pass from GR or AA to protected agriculture caused albedo increase or decrease, depending on the greenhouse covers materials. Reducing deforestation of CF and OGW, conversion of AA or GR into PA, and selecting adequate greenhouse covers could help to mitigate regional climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0163.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), temperate sub-continental climate, Lombardy, temperature, solar radiation
Online: 6 August 2020 (11:39:41 CEST)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is the defining global health and socioeconomic crisis of our time and represents the greatest challenge faced by the world since the end of the Second World War. The academic literature indicates that climatic features, specifically the temperature and absolute humidity, are very important factors affecting infectious pulmonary disease epidemics (e.g., SARS, MERS); however, the influence of climatic parameters on COVID-19 remains extremely controversial. The goal of this study is to quantify the existing relationship between several daily climate parameters (temperature, relative humidity, accumulated precipitation, solar radiation, wind direction and intensity, and evaporation), local morphological parameters, and new daily positive swabs for COVID-19, which represents the only parameter that can be statistically used to quantify the pandemic. The daily deaths parameter was not considered because it is not reliable due to frequent administrative errors. Daily data on meteorological conditions and new cases of COVID-19 were collected for the Lombardy area from March 1, 2020, to April 20, 2020. This region in Italy exhibited the largest number of official deaths in the world per million inhabitants, with a value of approximately 1700 per million on june 30, 2020. Moreover, the apparent lethality was approximately 17% in this area, mainly due to the considerable housing density and the extensive presence of industrial and craft areas. The Mann-Kendall test and multivariate statistical analysis showed that none of the considered climatic variables exhibited statistically significant relationships with the epidemiological evolution of COVID-19, at least in the spring months in temperate subcontinental climate areas, with the exception of solar radiation, which was directly related and showed an otherwise low explained variability of approximately 20%. Furthermore, the average temperatures of two highly representative meteorological stations of Molise and Lucania, the most weakly affected by the pandemic. The temperatures at these stations were approximately 1.5°C lower than that in the cities in Lombardy of Bergamo and Brescia, again confirming that a significant relationship between the increase in temperature and decrease in virology from COVID-19 was not evident, at least in the Italian peninsula.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0140.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: understory species; allometric biomass equation; species-specific and multispecies; temperate coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest; northeastern China
Online: 28 November 2016 (04:41:35 CET)
Understory plants are important components of forest ecosystem productivity and diversity. Compared to biomass models of overstory canopy trees, few are available for understory saplings and shrubs and therefore their roles in estimation of forest carbon pools are often ignored. In this study, we harvested 24 understory species including 4 saplings, 9 tree-like shrubs and 11 typical shrubs in coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest in northeastern China and developed the best fit allometric equations of above- and below-ground and total biomass by species-specific or multispecies using morphological measurements of basal diameter, height and crown area as independent variables. The result showed that single basal diameter, height or crown area had good explanatory power for both species-specific and multispecies (p<0.001). The best-fit models included only basal diameter in sapling and tree-like shrubs, and combinations of crown area, height, and basal diameter in typical shrubs. The logarithmic model was most desired among the 4 model forms of linear, quadratic, multiple linear and logarithmic, for species-specific and multispecies. The models we developed should help the estimation of forest ecosystem carbon stocks, especially for belowground component, and provide tools for quantification of individual species biomass of understory plants.