ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0342.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Biased Stochastic Process; Randomly Moving Particles; Special Relativity Effect; Lorentz-like factor
Online: 7 February 2023 (06:08:54 CET)
In a randomly moving particle swarm with fixed kinetic energy, the particle speeds follow the Maxwell distribution. In a certain period, the moving directions of particles in a sub-particle swarm may aggregate. Thus, the movements of the particles have the characteristics of biased stochastic movement. Regarding the biased particle swarm formed by a series of randomly moving particles (with a uniform average velocity c) with a greater probability of moving in a certain direction and the same probability of moving in other directions, there is a certain group velocity u in this direction, while the diffusion rate in other directions is slower than that of unbiased moving particles with the same average speed c. Moreover, the degree of slowing follows the Lorentz-like factor. In this article, the characteristics of this kind of biased random process are deduced starting from a biased random walk by using probability theory, and the expression of the Ito equation is provided. This article is expected to provide a reference to understand the nature of the special relativity effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0307.v5
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: randomly moving particles; effects of location aggregation; relaxed galaxy clusters; generalized diffusion equation
Online: 10 November 2022 (03:53:56 CET)
Prior studies have focused on the overall behavior of randomly moving particle swarms. However, the characteristics of the stochastic-constrained particles that form ubiquitously within these swarms remain oblivious. This study demonstrates a generalized diffusion equation for stochastic-constrained particles that considers the velocity and location aggregation effects observed from their parent particle swarm (i.e., a completely random particle swarm). This equation can be approximated as the form of Schr\"odinger equation in the microcosmic case (low relative density) and describe the dynamics of the total mass distribution in the macrocosmic case (high relative density). The predicted density distribution of the particle swarm in the stable aggregation state is consistent with the total mass distribution of massive, relaxed galaxy clusters (at least in the range of r < rs), preventing cuspy problems in the empirical Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile. This study opens a window to observe the dynamics of stochastic-constrained particles from a third perspective, from which the aggregation effect of particles without gravitation can be saw.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0611.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Bluetooth; Bluetooth low energy; COVID-19; Contact tracing; Weight-based matching method; smart phones
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:42:49 CEST)
Infectious disease like COVID-19 will have a great impact on human society. An effective prevention and control measure is to quickly isolate the source and reduce the population’s exposure to the infection. Therefore, it is very important to quickly trace and identify the virus carrier and its close contacts in order to effectively suppressing transmission. This article provides a method, system and storage medium for locating the source of infection based on big data. We adopt the method of combining Bluetooth and GPS positioning to track the action trajectory of each individual. The method stores the close contact and location information locally and update on the cloud platform for an appropriate period of time. The method and system can provide personal risk levels and regional risk levels through related algorithms. When entering a high-risk area or if the personal risk level within the Bluetooth interconnection range is greater than the set threshold, an alarm function is provided. We can also generate reports on the spread of the epidemic over a period of time. As a result, the system can quickly locate the source of infection and close contacts, providing a reference for quick and highly efficient epidemic prevention and control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0311.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: penta-1,4-dien-3-one; H-phosphonate; antibacterial activities; antiviral activities
Online: 26 December 2018 (09:51:36 CET)
A series of penta-1,4-dien-3-one containing a H-phosphonate scaffold were designed and synthesized. The structures of all title compounds were determined by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 31P-NMR, and HRMS. Bioassay results showed that several of the title compounds exhibited remarkable antibacterial and antiviral activities. Among these, compounds 3c and 3o exhibited substantial antibacterial activities against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae (Xoo) and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac). In addition, compounds 3c, 3f, and 3r showed remarkable curative activities against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), with 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of 290.0, 234.0, and 373.6 μg/mL, respectively. These were superior to that of ningnanmycin (386.2 μg/mL). Compound 3r exhibited comparative protective activity against TMV, with an EC50 value of 291.1 μg/mL, which was better than that of ningnanmycin (297.1 μg/mL). Notably, the solubility of all title compounds improved relative to the lead compound curcumin. These results suggest that penta-1,4-dien-3-one containing a H-phosphonate scaffold may be considered as an activator for antibacterial and antiviral agents.