Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: smell sensitivity; olfaction; threshold; staircase; QUEST
Online: 16 May 2019 (10:39:54 CEST)
The ability to smell is crucial for most species as it enables the detection of environmental threats like smoke, fosters social interactions, and contributes to the sensory evaluation of food and eating behavior. The high prevalence of smell disturbances throughout the life span calls for a continuous effort to improve tools for quick and reliable assessment of olfactory function. Odor-dispensing pens, called Sniffin' Sticks, are an established method to deliver olfactory stimuli during diagnostic evaluation. We tested the suitability of a Bayesian adaptive algorithm (QUEST) to estimate olfactory sensitivity using Sniffin' Sticks by comparing QUEST sensitivity thresholds with those obtained using a procedure based on an established standard staircase protocol. Thresholds were measured twice with both procedures in two sessions (Test and Retest). Overall, both procedures exhibited considerable overlap with QUEST displaying slightly higher test-retest correlations, less variability between measurements, and reduced testing duration. Notably, participants were more frequently presented with the highest concentration during the QUEST which may foster adaptation and habituation effects. We conclude that further research is required to better understand and optimize the procedure for assessment of olfactory performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0205.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: taste; smell; quality of life; sensitivity; threshold; QUEST
Online: 17 February 2022 (10:00:37 CET)
Taste and smell function decline with age, with robust impairment in the very old. Much less is known about taste and smell function in young and middle old. We investigated taste and smell sensitivity via thresholds in a sub-sample of the NutriAct Family Study (NFS), the NFS Examinations cohort (NFSE; N=251, age M=62.5 years). We examined different aspects relating to taste and smell function: the degree to which taste and smell sensitivity relate to another and to taste and smell preferences, the role of gender and age, as well as effects on Quality of Life (QOL). Taste thresholds were highly correlated but no correlation was observed between taste and smell thresholds and between thresholds and preference. Women were more sensitive for both taste and smell than men. We found no effect of age on sensitivity and no effect of sensitivity on QoL. All null-findings were corroborated with Bayesian statistics providing evidence for the null hypotheses. Together our results indicate the independence of taste and smell despite their overlap during sensorial experiences. We found no evidence for age-related sensory decline, which could be due to our sample´s characteristics of non-clinical volunteers with good dental health and 93% non-smokers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0010.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: felinine; smell; odor; SPME; GC-MS-O; VOCs; feline
Online: 4 January 2021 (10:47:54 CET)
The association between human and cat (F. catus) is well known. This domestic animal is also known for its malodorous urine and feces. The complexity of the odorous urine and feces impacts human life by triggering the human sensory organ in a negative way. The objective of this research was to identify the volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and associated odors in cat urine and feces using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and simultaneous sensory analysis of fresh and aged samples. The solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique was used to pre-concentrate the VOCs emitted from urine or feces samples. Twenty-one compounds were identified as emitted from fresh urine, whereas 64 compounds were emitted from fresh feces. A contrasting temporal impact was observed on the emission of VOCs for urine and feces. On aging, the emission increased to 36 detected chemicals for stale urine, whereas only 17 chemicals were detected in stale feces. Not all compounds were malodorous; some compounds had a pleasant hedonic smell to the human nose. Although trimethylamine, low molecular weight organic acids, and ketones were contributors to the odor to some extent, phenolic compounds and aromatic heterocyclic organic N compounds generated the most intense odors and substantially contributed to the overall malodor, as observed by this study. This work might be useful to formulate cat urine and feces odor remediation approaches to reduce odor impacts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0272.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-2); COVID-19; coronavirus; pandemic; smell; anosmia; taste; ageusia
Online: 16 April 2020 (12:42:44 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-2) is a coronavirus which is causing the actual COVID-19 pandemic. The disease caused by 2019 new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was named coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization in February 2020. Primary non-specific reported symptoms of 2019-nCoV infection at the prodromal phase are malaise, fever, and dry cough. The most commonly reported signs and symptoms are fever (98%), cough (76%), dyspnea (55%), and myalgia or fatigue (44%). Nonetheless, recent reports suggest an association between COVID-19 and altered olfactory and taste functions, although smell seems to be more affected than taste. These associations of smell and taste dysfunctions and CoV-2 are consistent with case reports describing a patient with SARS with long term anosmia after recovery from respiratory distress, with the observation that olfactory function is commonly altered after infection with endemic coronaviruses, and with data demonstrating that intentional experimental infection of humans with CoV-299 raises the thresholds at which odors can be detected. Post-viral anosmia and is one of the leading causes of loss of sense of smell in adults, accounting for up to 40% cases of anosmia. Viruses that give rise to the common cold are well known to cause post-infectious loss, and over 200 different viruses are known to cause upper respiratory tract infections. I reviewed the possible mechanisms of smell and taste loss in COVID-19. I concluded that since the existence of such a relationship is likely, it is highly recommended that those patients who experience complications such as smell and/or taste loss, even as unique symptoms, should be considered as potential SARS-CoV-2 virus carriers.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: olfactory; smell; olfaction; anosmia; odor; rhinology; head neck surgery; otolaryngology; platelet rich plasma; recovery
Online: 5 July 2022 (08:33:30 CEST)
Objective: To describe technique of platelet rich plasma injection into the olfactory cleft in patients with long-term COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction. Methods: The technique starts with the blood extraction and the isolation of PRP through a 10-min centrifugation (4,200 rpm). The supernatant was injected in nasal regions with a 27-G needle after a local anesthesia with Xylocain 10% spray. The injection was performed through a 0° rigid optic. Precisely, several points of 0.2–0.5 mL were performed in the nasal septum in regard of the head of the middle turbine, and in the head of the middle turbine in both sides. Clinical, psychophysical and pain outcomes were evaluated pre- to post-injection. Results: A 22-year-old female with 24-month post-COVID-19 anosmia was recruited for the injection of PRP. The olfactory cleft endoscopic scale score was 0 and the threshold, discrimination and identification scores were 1, 8 and 0, respectively. The Olfactory Disorder Questionnaire score was 51. The patient benefited from the injection of 2.2 mL of PRP in nasal regions, which was done without complication. The procedure pain level was 2/10, while the local anesthesia with xylocaine 10% was judged as the most annoyance step with a score of 3/10. At 2-month post-injection, the TDI scores reached 16, 16, and 16 (48), while the Olfactory Disorder Questionnaire was 73. The patient described its recovery as very rapid, lasting 3-4 days, and occurring 3-week post-injection. Conclusion: The injection of PRP into the olfactory cleft is a safe and easiness new approach that may improve the recovery of smell sense.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: loss of taste and smell; dysgeusia; anosmia; chemosensory dysfunction; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19
Online: 16 June 2020 (07:46:15 CEST)
Early detection, isolation, and management of COVID-19 patients are crucial to contain the current pandemic. The CDC in USA recently included "sudden loss of taste (dysgeusia/ageusia) and smell (anosmia/hyposmia)” as symptoms of COVID-19. If these symptoms are reliable forerunner symptoms of COVID-19, then it may facilitate early detection and containment of the disease. Hence, we systematically evaluated the contemporary evidence on dysgeusia and anosmia as trigger symptoms in COVID-19. Ovid MEDLINE, EBSCO host, and Web of Science databases were searched between December 25, 2019-May 30, 2020.Of the 13 identified records, eight (totaling 11,054 COVID-19 patients), were included, as per the selection criteria. The studies emanated mostly from the European community, as well as China, the USA, and Iran. In total, anosmia and dysgeusia symptoms were present in 74.9 % and 81.3% ambulatory as well as hospitalized, mild-to-severe cases of COVID-19 patients, respectively. The European, US, and Iran data indicate that olfactory, and gustatory symptoms appear prior to general COVID-19 symptoms in a majority of the patients. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review analyzing the prevalence of chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19. Further, studies are essential to evaluate their utility as harbingers of COVID-19 onset, and to establish clinical practice guidelines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0068.v1
Subject: Keywords: olfaction, olfactory, odorants, pheromones, smell, electric field, electromagnetic radiation, electric field sensor, insect antennae
Online: 4 September 2018 (14:31:22 CEST)
The olfactory system is capable of distinguishing individual odorants from among a virtually unlimited number. Fish, for example, detect changes in the electric field environment induced by prey and other sources. Floral electric fields exhibit variations in pattern and structure, which can be discriminated by bumblebees. We have constructed an electric field sensor, which, in the course of focussing on achieving maximum sensitivity and consistency, ultimately resembles features of the insect sensorium. A “fingerprint” 3D plot ( time, frequency range, voltage amplitude), representing the emitted electric field profile, is presented for each of a variety of odorants and other chemicals. The substance-specific electric-field emission and identification is not impeded by containers or barriers or distance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Odour Legislation; Air Quality; Air Pollution; Odor; Smell; Odour Units; Dispersion Modelling; Agriculture; Environmental Regulations; Policy
Online: 7 December 2020 (10:58:20 CET)
When it comes to air pollution complaints, odours are often the most significant contributor. Sources of odour emissions range from natural to anthropogenic. Mitigation of odour can be challenging, multifaceted, site-specific, and is often confounded by its complexity—defined by existing (or non-existing) environmental laws, public ordinances, and socio-economic considerations. The objective of this paper is to review and summarize odour legislation in selected European countries (France, Germany, Austria, Hungary, United Kingdom, Spain, The Netherlands, Italy, Belgium), North America (USA and Canada), South America (Chile and Colombia), as well as Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) and Asia (Japan, China). Many countries have incorporated odour controls into their legislation. However, odour-related assessment criteria tend to be highly variable between countries, individual states, provinces and even counties and towns. Legislation ranges from (1) no specific mention in environmental legislation that regulates pollutants which are known to have an odour impact to (2) extensive details about odour source testing, odour dispersion modeling, ambient odour monitoring, (3) setback distances, (4) process operations, and (5) odour control technologies and procedures. Agricultural operations are one specific source of odour emissions in rural and suburban areas and a model example of such complexities. Management of agricultural odour emissions is important because of the dense consolidation of animal feeding operations and the advance of housing development into rural areas. Overall, there is a need for continued survey, review, development, and adjustment of odour legislation that considers sustainable development, environmental stewardship, and socio-economic realities, all of which are amenable to a just, site-specific, and sector-specific application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0629.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: air pollution control; air quality; volatile organic compounds; nuisance smell; livestock agriculture; waste management; environmental technology; advanced oxidation; excimer; titanium dioxide
Online: 25 March 2021 (14:46:38 CET)
UV-A (ca. 365 nm wavelength, a.k.a. 'black light') photocatalysis has been investigated to comprehensively mitigate odor and selected air pollutants in the livestock environment. This study was conducted to confirm the performance of UV-A photocatalysis on the swine farm. The objectives of this research were to (1) scale-up of the UV-A photocatalysis treatment, (2) evaluate the mitigation of odorous gases from swine slurry pit, and (3) test different UV sources, (4) evaluate the effect of suspended particulate matter (PM), and (5) conduct preliminary economic analyses. We tested UV-A photocatalysis at a mobile laboratory-scale capable of treating ~0.2 - 0.8 m3·s-1 of barn exhaust air. The targeted gaseous emissions of barn exhaust air were significantly mitigated (p < 0.05) up to 40% reduction of measured odor; 63%, 44%, 32%, 40%, 66%, and 49% reduction of dimethyl disulfide, isobutyric acid, butanoic acid, p-cresol, indole, and skatole, respectively; 40% reduction of H2S; 100% reduction of O3; and 13% reduction of N2O. The PM mitigation effect was not significant. Formaldehyde levels did not change, and a 21% generation of CO2 was observed. The percent reduction of targeted gases decreased as the airborne PM increased. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analysis confirmed that UV-A treatment changed the overall nuisance odor character of swine barn emissions into weaker manure odor with 'toothpaste and 'mint' notes. The smell of benzoic acid generated in UV-A treatment was likely one of the compounds responsible for the less-offensive overall odor character of the UV-treated emissions. Results are needed to inform the design of a farm-scale trial, where the interior barn walls can be treated with the photocatalyst, and foul air will be passively treated as it moves through the barn.