REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0822.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: Medicinal plants; antiviral; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Influenza; Delivery systems; Nanomedicine; Nanocarriers; Antiviral therapies
Online: 11 May 2023 (08:30:22 CEST)
Synthetic antivirals and corticosteroids have been used to treat both influenza and the SARS-CoV-2 disease named COVID-19. However, these medications are not always effective, produce several adverse effects, and are associated with high costs. Medicinal plants and their constituents act in several different targets and signaling pathways involved in the pathophysiology of Influenza and COVID-19. This study aimed to perform a review to evaluate the effects of medicinal plants on Influenza and COVID-19 and to investigate the potential delivery systems for new antiviral therapies. EMBASE, PubMed, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, and COCHRANE databases were searched. The studies included in this review showed that medicinal plants, in different formulations, can help decrease viral spread and time of full recovery. Plants reduced the incidence of acute respiratory syndromes and the symptom scores of the illnesses. Moreover, plants are related to few adverse effects and have low costs. In addition to their significance as natural antiviral agents, medicinal plants and their bioactive compounds may exhibit low bioavailability. This highlights the need for alternative delivery systems, such as metal nanoparticles, that can effectively transport these compounds to infected tissues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2032.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; post-COVID-19; pulmonary manifestations; spirometry; chest tomography.
Online: 28 July 2023 (12:48:47 CEST)
COVID-19 generated a scenario for global health with multiple systemic impairments. This retrospective study evaluated the clinical, radiological, and pulmonary functional evolution in 302 post-COVID-19 patients. Regarding post-COVID-19 pulmonary symptoms, dry cough, dyspnea, and chest pain were the most frequent. Of the associated comorbidities, asthma was more frequent (23.5%). Chest Tomography (CT) initially showed a mean pulmonary involvement of 69.7%, and the evaluation in the subsequent months showed an improvement in the evolutionary image, and with less than six months post-pathology, there was a commitment of 37 .7%, from six to twelve months, 20% and after 12 months, 9.9%. And as for most of the sample, 50.3% of the patients presented CT normalization in less than six months after infection, 23% normalized between six and twelve months, and 5.2% normalized the images after twelve months, with one remaining. Percentage of 17.3% who maintained post-COVID-19 pulmonary residual sequelae. Regarding spirometry, in less than six months after the pathology, 59.3% of the patients already showed a regular exam; 12.3% normalized their function within six to twelve months, and 6.3% concluded a normal exam after twelve months of post-pathology evaluation. Only 3.6% of the patients still showed some alteration in this period.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2260.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: epicatechin; skeletal muscle; muscular atrophy; catechins; myogenic regulatory factors
Online: 30 June 2023 (14:49:48 CEST)
Epicatechin has been described as a polyphenol compound that promotes skeletal muscle restructuring, by expressing muscle regulation factors, activation of satellite cells and modulation of the main pathways associated with catabolism. However, the literature shows contrasting results of therapeutic effects and treatment protocols. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to analyze the current literature addressing the molecular mechanism and clinical protocol of epicatechin on skeletal muscular atrophy in humans and animals. A search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. The qualitative analysis showed a prevalence of the inhibitory action of epicatechin in myostatin expression and atrogenes FOXO, MAFbx and MuRF1. Epicatechin showed positive effects on increased follistatin and on the activation of the myogenic regulatory factors (Myf5, MyoD and myogenin). In addition, the studies evidenced the impact of epicatechin on the mitochondrias' biosynthesis in muscle fibers, activation of the signaling pathway of AKT/mTOR protein synthesis, and improvement of skeletal musculature performance, particularly when associated with physical training. Epicatechin showed promising clinical applicability through beneficial results under conditions that negatively affect the skeletal musculature. However, there is no protocol standardization allowing to draw more specific conclusions on its therapeutic use.