Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: satisfaction; customer; taxi market; marketing; Russia
Online: 12 December 2019 (12:40:56 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that influenced customer satisfaction in the Moscow taxi market. The previous researches in customer satisfaction of transportation services laid the foundation of factor model. The resulting list of factors was revised by taxi market experts. The augmented model provided the basis for quantitative survey. The research sample included 310 respondents who have been using taxi services in Moscow during past 2 years. Survey data was analyzed using multiple choice regression method. Analysis results show significant differences between frequent and casual taxi users and a certain number of passenger experience factors that have no influence on customer satisfaction:for frequent users it is discount, for regular users - trip environment, and for rare clients - technical support&security and trip comfort.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: articles; bibliometric; causes; death; diseases; journals; Russia
Online: 23 September 2020 (04:48:32 CEST)
Societal changes have had effects on deaths from all causes in Russia. Up until now, deaths from all causes have been well researched, although several inconsistencies persist on the contributions of researchers. This study assessed research output, trends and topics that shaped deaths from all causes studies in Russia. Using bibliometric and topic modelling approaches, deaths from all causes in Russia published from 1914 to date was analysed using data on publications, citations, journals, keywords co-occurrence, year of publication, institutional affiliations, and country of origin from Scopus. Overall results indicate a steady growth of publications in Russia was documented after 1985. The h-index of some top 10 authors did not surpass single digits. A network visualisation map showed that ‘Russia’, ‘male’, ‘mortality’ and ‘human’ were the most commonly encountered vital terms. Of the ten most prolific authors, McKee M, Shkolnikov VM, Bobak M, Samorodskaya IV and Andreev E were the first five. Although the top 10 journals researching on death causes in Russia were Russian, these journals were not included in the most cited journals. The most prolific institutions studying deaths in Russia included; Tehran University of Medical Sciences, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University College London, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research and National Research University-Higher School of Economics. Findings suggest that deaths from all causes research attention in Russia increased in recent years, but the number of publications and research related engagements (e.g., networking and/ collaboration) does not match-up to other countries (e.g., UK, US, Germany). This research lag calls for more collaborative research between public health disciplines and networking among researchers (i.e., both national and international).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0070.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: city; large urban regions; Russia; globalization; open database
Online: 6 August 2019 (08:33:24 CEST)
This study explores how to delineate Russian cities in order to make them comparable on the world scale. In doing so we introduce the concept of large urban regions (LUR) applicable to the Russian urban context. This research is motivated by a principal research question: how to construct a statistical urban delineation, which would allow first, to demonstrate integration of cities into globalization, and second, to make global urban comparative research. Previous studies on urban delineation in Russia have focused almost exclusively on functional urban areas, which have substantial limitations and are not suitable for global urban comparisons. Addressing this research gap, we propose a new definition of Large Urban Regions (LUR). In doing so, first, we introduce the context of Russian cities (2), then we discuss existing Russian urban concepts (3), and justify a need for a new urban delineation (4). Afterwards, we present a general method to delineate Large Urban Regions in Russian context (5.1), and illustrate it in the two case studies of St. Petersburg (polycentric region) and Samara (monocentric region) (5.2). In the last part (6), we discuss the 10 the largest urban regions in Russia and describe a constructed database including all Russian LURs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0377.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: diet; living environment; dietary patterns; characteristics of regions; Russia
Online: 21 December 2022 (02:50:22 CET)
The goal of our study was to examine the effect of regional characteristics of living environment on individual a priori and a posteriori dietary patterns of the Russian population. For the analysis, we used cross-sectional data from the Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases in the Regions of the Russian Federation study of 2013-2014. The sample included 18,054 men and women 25-64 years of age from 12 regions. Based on the frequency of consumption of basic foods, four a posteriori empirical dietary patterns (EDPs), along with an a priori cardioprotective dietary pattern (CPDP) were identified. To describe the regional living environment, 5 regional indices were used. The adherence to the meat-based EDP was directly associated with deterioration of social living conditions and the more northerly location of the region of residence. The probability of CPDP increased with deterioration of social living conditions, an aggravation of demographic crisis, higher industrial development of the region, as well as with a decline in the economic development of the region, income and economic inequality of the population. We detected some gender-dependent differences in associations. The revealed patterns reflect the national dietary preferences of Russians, and regional indices characterize the effect of living environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0334.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Russia; solar power; hydrogen energy; electric vehicle; lithium battery
Online: 28 January 2020 (05:47:34 CET)
With a relatively small population, Russia accesses huge oil, natural gas, coal and uranium resources, and hosts advanced nuclear energy, oil and natural gas industries. However, the combined effect of today’s low cost electricity generation via photovoltaic modules, water and wind turbines and similarly low cost storage in Li-ion battery and solar hydrogen obtained via water electrolysis will have a profound impact on Russia’s energy and automotive industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0051.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: nighttime fires; gas flaring; MODIS; VIIRS; Khanty-Mansiysk Russia
Online: 8 May 2017 (08:15:08 CEST)
Gas flaring is commonly used by industrial plants for processing oil and natural gases in the atmosphere, and hence is an important anthropogenic source for various pollutants including CO2, CO, and aerosols. This study evaluates the feasibility of using satellite data to characterize gas flaring form space by focusing on the Khanty Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug in Russia, a region that is well known for its dominatingly gas flaring activities. Multiple satellite-based thermal anomaly data products at night are inter-compared and analyzed, including MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Terra level-2 Thermal Anomalies product (MOD14), MODIS Aqua level-2 Thermal Anomalies product (MYD14), VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) Active Fires Applications Related Product (VAFP), and VIIRS level-2 data based Nightfire product (VNF). The analysis compares and contrasts the efficacy of these sensor products in detecting small, hot sources like flares on the ground in extremely cold environments such as Russia. We found that the VNF algorithm recently launched by NOAA has the unprecedented accuracy and efficiency in characterizing gas flares in the region owing primarily to the use of Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) bands. Reconciliation of VNF’s differences and similarities with other nighttime fire products is also conducted, indicating that MOD14/MYD14 and VAFP data are only effective in detecting those gas flaring pixels that are among the hottest in the region. Validation of VNF product of gas flaring location with Google Earth images are made. It is shown that that VNF’s estimates of gas flaring area (the area of gas flaming) agree well the counterparts from Google images with a linear correlation of 0.91, highlighting its potential use for routinely monitoring emissions of gas flaring from space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0404.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: columbite group minerals; pyrochlore; cassiterite; pegmatite; lithium; beryllium; NW Russia
Online: 7 November 2023 (06:34:15 CET)
In this paper we present textural and compositional data for columbite group minerals (CGM) and associated Nb-Ta-Sn oxides from lithium-beryllium-tantalum pegmatite deposits of the Kolmozero-Voronja belt, NW Russia, with the aim of deciphering the above mentioned features for minerals from deposits with different mineral signatures and lithium ore grade. Minerals from four deposits, including two of world-class (Kolmozero and Polmostundra), are examined. It is shown that the main controlling factors are the diversity and rate of magmatic fractionation, hydrothermal overprint and mineral paragenesis followed from the specific geochemical signature of the different pegmatite deposits. CGM from Kolmozero include several mineral species (columbite-(Fe), columbite-(Mn), tantalite-(Fe), tantalite-(Mn)) showing large compositional variations, mainly controlled by Nb-Ta fractionation (Ta/(Ta+Nb) = 0.16-0.70; Mn/(Mn + Fe) = 0.45-0.63). Textural patterns are extremely various (oscillatory, homogeneous, patchy, spongy, somewhere with over-growing Ta-rich rims) and indicate the involvement of numerous magmatic and hydrothermal processes. The Polmostundra CGM are represented by columbite-(Fe) with Ta/(Ta+Nb) ranging from 0.05 to 0.39 with homogeneous, mottled, oscillatory, patchy and irregular reverse textures. The Okhmylk CGM are irregular normal, patchy and homogeneous columbite-(Fe) and columbite-(Mn) with Ta/(Ta+Nb) = 0.09-0.24 and Mn/(Mn + Fe) = 0.29-0.92, indicating the suppressed magmatic fractionation and iron drop due to precipitation of Fe minerals. Columbite-(Fe) and columbite-(Mn) from the Be-Ta Shongui deposit are less evolved with Ta/(Ta+Nb) = 0.07-0.23 and Mn/(Mn + Fe) = 0.31-0.55. The minerals are characterized by progressive normal, oscillatory, homogeneous and ir-regular reverse patterns. Associated pyrochlore minerals occur both as early magmatic (Kolmozero) and late hydrothermal (Polmostundra, Okhmylk). Cassiterite is found only in the Okhmylk dykes and is apparently of hydrothermal origin. CGM from Li pegmatites have impurities of Ti (0.01-0.05 apfu) and W (up to 0.02 apfu), whereas CGM from Be pegmatites contains elevated Ti (up to 0.09 apfu). The mineral systems analysis presented here is relevant for exploration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0267.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: disaster risk management; mitigation; preparedness; response; recovery; Germany; USA; Russia; China
Online: 16 February 2023 (04:00:58 CET)
The uniqueness of each system stems from the fact that the risks of disasters are specific and that their presence and manifestation are not universal and the same for every country. Just as no country is the same in all other segments, their disaster risk management systems are unequal. The paper describes the systems in four different countries, through observation and comparison of four areas of activity that are implemented in dealing with disasters. First of all, in the paper, the legal basis and institutional frameworks on which these systems rest in each of the countries were considered – starting from the international level and guidelines given at international conferences, to all by-laws and local disaster activity plans. It was considered how each of the states implements risk mitigation activities and how it increases preparedness for them. When the system recognizes risks, their probability and the frequency of their occurrence, activities are planned to prepare the country and every individual in it for a potentially unwanted event. Differences in the ways of mitigating risks and preparing all elements of the system and protected values for disasters are presented. The third element of action in the event of disasters concerns the response. In this segment, questions are raised regarding institutional solutions in the system, division of responsibilities, the priority of response and mobilization of resources at all levels. The last phase, the one that occurs after the disaster, and that is the recovery from it, depends on the reaction. In the paper, it was discussed how in the end, when a disaster occurs and when damage to the population, environment, material and other goods occurred, how each of the states implements reconstruction, i.e. how it recovers - whether that recovery was previously well planned or whether ad hoc solutions are applied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0058.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: labor migration; migration policy; Russia; Post-Soviet space; governmentality; labor legalization
Online: 18 September 2016 (09:45:52 CEST)
The authors argue that despite significant numbers of foreign workers present in the Russian labor market Russia remains unattractive for highly skilled foreign workers. The economic crisis the country has faced since 2014 has resulted in a further outflow of foreign nationals from OECD countries. So Russia has to look for employees among newcomers from the former Soviet states, the majority of whom come from Central Asia. Russian politics with regard to immigration is characterized by the collision between “geopolitical” and domestic policy rationales. On one hand, seeking to maximize its influence in the post-Soviet space Russia provides preferential conditions of employment for citizens of partner countries in the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union. On the other hand, the Kremlin is afraid to liberalize its approach to immigration and the integration of immigrants through fear of losing popularity among the electorate. The second substantial feature of Russian immigration politics is an extreme level of securitization of migration issues. The government considers these issues primarily through a policing lens. One cannot claim that the Russian state does not take any steps to liberalize “migratory regulation”; however, the effect of these measures is being vastly reduced by new restrictions. In addition, liberally designed laws do not bring the expected results due to the corrupt practices that pervade the whole of migration regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0270.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: adolescents; Internet addiction; problematic Internet use; game addiction; social media addiction; Russia
Online: 20 May 2022 (08:26:04 CEST)
We aimed to assess the prevalence, content structure and psychological comorbidity of PIU in Russian adolescents. In addition, the design of our research provided an opportunity to compare demographic and psychological patterns of different forms of PIU: generalised (PIUgen) and specific – problematic video game use (PUgame) as well as problematic social media use (PUsocial). Methods: This is a one-stage cross-sectional observational study of school sampling in three major Siberian cities. A total of 4514 schoolchildren aged 12-18 (mean age 14.52±1.52 years) were surveyed. Chen Internet Addiction Scale, Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents”, and The Social Media Disorder Scale were used to identify PIU and its types. Results: The prevalence of PIUgen among adolescents in Central Siberia was 7.2%; the prevalence of PUgame was 10.4%; the prevalence of PUsocial was 8.0%. The results of structural equation modelling, as well as the correlation analysis data, suggest two possible patterns of psychosocial problems with PIU – the first one characteristic of both PIUgen and PUsocial, the second one, significantly different, – of PUgame. Conclusions: Urban adolescents in Central Siberia do not differ significantly from their Asian and European peers. Our findings support the concept of rejecting the term “generalised PIU” as a single psychological construct.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0123.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Protestantism; Protestant Churches; post-Soviet Russia; ethnic groups; national intelligentsia; native peoples; social activity
Online: 20 November 2017 (08:10:47 CET)
This paper considers two types of Protestant ethnic groups of some areas of Urals and Western Siberia. The first type consist of representatives of members of different ethnic groups consisting of well-educated professionals, incorporated into industrial society and associated with the intellectualism of Protestantism. The second type is represented by the indigenous peoples of the Polar Urals and Western Siberia, who use the Protestant religious organizations as tool for restoring life-sustaining elements of the native peoples’ traditional economy. I employed the inductive approach and the comparison method; during the fieldwork I used ethnographic participant observations, sociological structured interviews and closed-ended questionnaires. The empirical data have been collected in the Southern, Middle and Polar Urals and Western Siberia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0252.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Emerald ash borer; Fraxinus spp.; forest pests; invasive populations; north-west Russia; Saint Pe-tersburg; urban pests
Online: 15 September 2021 (09:46:17 CEST)
Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle of East Asian origin that in North America and Russia killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). In September 2020, EAB was de-tected in Saint Petersburg, becoming resonant event for the metropolitan city. The aim of the present study was to investigate occurrence and ecology of EAB in Saint Petersburg. The presence of two distinct enclave populations of EAB was revealed, each of which has (very likely) been established by separate events of “hitchhiking” transport vehicles. Following the invasion, further spread of EAB in Saint Petersburg was slow and locally restricted, main explanation for which is climatic factor. Due to spread by “hitchhiking”, the possibility of EAB further long-distance ge-ographic spread of EAB in the Baltic Sea region (EU) is high, and not only by ground transport (120–130 km distance from EU borders), but also by ferries transporting cars (traditional means of transportation across the Baltic Sea). In certain cases, development of EAB on F. excelsior was more successful (stem portion colonized, larval densities, number of galleries, exit holes, viable larvae, emerged beetles) than in (adjacent) F. pennsylvanica trees. Observed relatively high EAB-sensitivity of F. excelsior therefore questions the efficacy and benefits of the currently ongoing selection and breeding projects against ash dieback (ADB), caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Inventory, mapping, and monitoring of surviving F. excelsior trees in areas infested by both ADB and EAB are necessary to acquire genetic resource for work on strategic long-term restoration of F. excelsior, tackling (inevitable) invasion of EAB to the EU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0090.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: CO2; CH4; δ13С in wood; tree-ring; Pinus sylvestris; iWUE; ci/ca; temperature; precipitation; evapotranspiration; cloud fraction; Tatarstan Republic; Russia
Online: 3 October 2023 (09:20:36 CEST)
Human-caused anthropogenic greenhouse emissions impact climate globally. In this pilot study, we aim to reveal the impact of oil and gas emissions from local oil deposits in the regime of their natural degradation and development and eco-physiological changes of pine forests in Tatarstan Republic, Russia over the past century. We performed stable carbon isotope analysis in pine tree rings (13Cptrw) to reveal the impact of oil and gas emissions from the giant oil field reservoirs located in Leninogorsk region (UVRT) and the natural reserve site in Raifa. Our results show decreasing 13Cptrw at UVRT in 1943 when oil extraction was started, and in 1970, when it reached the maximum production. We found that 13Cptrw from UVRT indicates on developing unfavourable drier conditions and suppressed tree growth caused by both human-induced oil and deposit infrastructure and natural processes compared to undisturbed Raifa. The 13Cptrw from Raifa is more negative compared to UVRT, which can be explained by higher forest sensitivity to human-induced impact. From an ecophysiological point of view decreasing intercellular to ambient CO2 concentration at the leaf level and increasing intrinsic water use efficiency along with decreasing tree-ring width at UVRT (1970-2021) indicate on development of drought conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0417.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: storm tracks; track density; cyclogenesis areas; climate variability and change; the North Atlantic Oscillation; the East Atlantic–West Russia pattern
Online: 27 July 2022 (10:00:33 CEST)
A better understanding of the expected future cyclonic activity, especially in the Mediterranean Basin in winter, is essential for developing scientifically based adaptation and mitigation methods to extreme precipitation and wind anomalies. The aim of this study is to analyze the change of winter cyclonic activity in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region, within the Atlantic–European region, at the beginning (as the recent historical period), middle and end of the 21st century. The projections are based on an ensemble of seven CMIP6 models, which showed the best consistency with NCEP/NCAR and ERA5 reanalysis, under the intermediate SSP2-4.5 and highest-emission SSP5-8.5 scenarios. The results show a consistent increase of the frequency of cyclones over Central Europe and the British Isles associated with the shift of cyclone tracks: norward from the Western Mediterranean region and southward from the Iceland Low. The latter leads to a decrease of the frequency in the north of the Atlantic–European region. At the same time, there is a reduction of the frequency of cyclones over the east of the Mediterranean Sea consistent with the decrease of cyclogenesis events. Area-averaged cyclone numbers in the Western and Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea subregions reduce to the end of the century under the highest-emission scenario, but not constantly and with a raise in the middle of the 21st century under both scenarios, which may be linked to the long-term multidecadal variability or regional features. In general, our study shows that the future winter cyclonic activity in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region responds unevenly to global climate changes, because regional and monthly features are important, as well as accounting for the long-term quasiperiodic variability.