ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0365.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Songyuan earthquake; Songyuan site; sand liquefaction; hyperbolic model; discriminant formula
Online: 21 September 2021 (14:12:47 CEST)
Based on the 5.7-magnitude earthquake that stroke Songyuan (China) and 172 groups of liquefaction data collected in mainland China, the hyperbolic liquefaction discriminant formula originally proposed by Sun Rui was revised, and a new formula for the liquefaction of sand was put forward. Groups of data derived from the Bachu earthquake in Xinjiang and an earthquake that occurred in New Zealand (47 and 195 groups, respectively) were used to carry out a back-judgment test, then, the results were compared with those of the existing standard method. Overall, the results showed that the new formula for hyperbolic liquefaction discrimination compensates for the conservative liquefaction discrimination of the older formula; moreover, it has a good applicability to different intensities, groundwater levels, and the deep sand layer of the Songyuan site, reflected by a more balanced success rate. Therefore, combining the existing liquefaction discrimination methods and the research results of discrimination, it is necessary to establish a suitable regional identification method through the continuous accumulation of liquefaction data and expanding database.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0206.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Qinzhou Bay; sediment provenance; human activities; endmember analysis
Online: 14 September 2022 (09:48:06 CEST)
Globally,coastal regions are vital areas of human activities and, as such, are centres of population growth and urban and economic development. Long-term human development has had a major impact on the ecological environment of coastal zones. Therefore, exploring the distribution and provenance of marine sediment types in coastal areas heavily influenced by human activities can provide scientific evidence and references for the current and future ecological management of these sensitive environments. For this reason, we have conducted an analysis on the sediment grain size, Endmember, organic matter content and geochemical elements in the Lu’erhuan River‒Malan Island‒Sandun Island area in the eastern part of Qinzhou Bay, a region heavily influenced by human activities. Sediment grain size clearly differs throughout the study site and the material provenances and hydrodynamic conditions are also varied, likely due to the local environmental conditions and the significant impact human activities have had on the area. The finest-grained sediment is imported from either inland or coastal areas via rivers and weak tidal currents, the next finest component is input from coastal areas through weak tidal currents, and the moderately coarse component mainly originates from nearby beaches. The two coarsest-grained sediment components are influenced by the combination of human activities, tidal currents and waves and enter the water via erosion. Organic matter provenance resembles that of the sediment components, exhibiting varied characteristics. This is due to the combination of natural and human activities in the bay. The organic matter in the upper reaches of the Lu’erhuan River originates from the river and coastal paddy fields, with obvious terrigenous characteristics; the organic matter in northern Malan Island mainly comes from external sources related to oyster farming; while organic matter in eastern Sandun Island is mainly produced endogenously by marine plankton. Al, Ti, Fe, Mg, K, Ga and other elements indicate that terrestrial sediments are significantly disturbed by human activities. However，Mn reflects the marine distribution of terrestrial sediments from the Lu’erhuan River to Jishuimen. Ca and Sr, indicators of marine sediments, are distributed in the eastern offshore area of Sandun Island, which is connected to the open waters. Due to the influence of human activities, As and Cd are highly enriched in the study area, while Cu is less affected by human activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0973.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: β-cell loss; β-cell dedifferentiation; diabetes; GSIS; THC; CBD; THCV; CBC; CBN
Online: 15 September 2023 (04:54:38 CEST)
Our findings indicate that all five phytocannabinoids reduce HG-HL-induced -cell loss likely through reducing apoptosis and pyroptosis. The protective effects of CBD, THCV, CBC, and CBN were seen in the GSIS impairment by HG-HL. Although all five phytocannabinoids tested in this research demonstrated the capability to inhibit β-cell dedifferentiation induced by HG-HL, CBD seems to be more effective compared to the other phytocannabinoids, as indicated by the specific biomarker responses of β-cells and progenitor cells to CBD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0506.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: endometrial cancer; fertility-sparing management; molecular classification; reproductive age; pregnancy
Online: 26 November 2021 (12:42:15 CET)
Conclusions: Molecular classification could provide reliable supplementary information for evaluating prognostic and contribute to treatment option decision-making in EEC patients. Fertility-sparing treatment is not recommended for EEC patients with CNH and MSI-H. Furthermore, fertility-sparing treatment can be attempted in EEC patients with CHL, but regular follow-up should be carried out to early detection of EC relapse and prevention of disease progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0514.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: corn starch; maleic anhydride; lactic acid; methyl acrylate; hydrophobically modified; in-situ solid phase polymerization
Online: 21 November 2018 (05:04:32 CET)
Three kinds of hydrophobic groups grafted starches of maleic anhydride grafted starch (MAH-g-starch), lactic acid grafted starch (LA-g-starch), and methyl acrylate grafted starch (MA-g-starch) were prepared by in-situ solid phase polymerization. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were confirmed successful grafting. The grafting ratios of MAH-g-starch, LA-g-starch and MA-g-starch were 6.50%, 12.45%, and 0.57%, respectively. Influenced by the grafting ratio, LA-g-starch had the best hydrophobic properties and the largest molecular weight, and those for MA-g-starch was the worst. The surfaces of grafted starches were covered with graft polymer, with obvious surface roughness and bond degree of MAH-g-starch and LA-g-starch. The crystalline structure of grafted starches showed some damage, with LA-g-starch exhibiting the greatest decrease in crystallinity, and less of a change for MA-g-starch. Overall, the grafting reaction improved thermoplasticity, with LA-g-starch the most improved, followed by MAH-g-starch, and then MA-g-starch.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1066.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: MoS2; Lithium base grease; addition method; Friction; corro
Online: 16 November 2023 (10:29:15 CET)
MoS2 lithium-based grease is suitable for lubrication protection between bearings at high temperatures and loads due to its excellent tribological properties. However, there is little research on the influence of different addition methods of MoS2 additive on the tribology and corrosion properties of lithium grease. In this work, vegetable oil with low toxicity, high biodegradation rate, and low cost was selected as the base oil, lithium 12-hydroxystearate as the thickener, and MoS2 as the additive. The effects of different adding modes of MoS2 on the tribology and corrosion properties of lithium grease were studied. The experimental results showed that adding 0.01wt% MoS2 before thickening was more conducive to improving the tribological properties of lithium grease. The average friction coefficient was 0.034, and the average spot diameter was reduced by 0.16mm. After grinding and adding 0.01wt% MoS2, the corrosion inhibition efficiency of the steel sheet was as high as 96.97%. The main reason was that the longer stirring and grinding were conducive to the uniform distribution of MoS2 in the grease, and the protective film formed by MoS2 and GCr15-bearing steel improved the lubrication performance and corrosion inhibition performance of the friction system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0252.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Chinese fir wood; sodium silicate; phenol formaldehyde oligomer; respiratory impregnation; comparative study
Online: 25 August 2019 (15:32:30 CEST)
To compare The effects of organic and inorganic impregnation on the properties of unmodified, phenol formaldehyde oligomer-modified (PFOMCF), and sodium silicate-modified Chinese fir wood (SSMCF) were compared using samples prepared using the respiratory impregnation method. Impregnation and reinforcement effects and water resistance of PFOMCF and SSMCF were compared and the results was showed that the weight percentage gain, density increase rate, bending strength, and compressive strength of SSMCF were clearly higher than those of PFOMCF and had a lower water absorption rate within 60 h. The impregnation and reinforcement effects and dimensional stability of SSMCF were better than those of PFOMCF. FT-IR, XRD, CONE, and TGA examinations were used to test and analyze the chemical structure, crystalline structure, flame retardancy, and heat resistance of these modified woods. The results indicated that SSMCF possessed more hydrogen bonds than PFOMCF and that Si–O–Si chemical bonding with high bond energy was formed. Meanwhile, the weakened degree of the diffraction peak of SSMCF was much less than that of PFOMCF. These results explained that the mechanical properties and water resistance of SSMCF were better than PFOMCF. Compared with PFOMCF, SSMCF had a lower heat release rate (HRR), peak-HRR, mean-HRR, total heat release, smoke production rate, and total smoke production as well as higher thermal decomposition temperature and residual rate. Inorganic sodium silicate was shown to be a better flame retardant, while SSMCF had good smoke suppression effects, thermal stability, and safety performance in the case of fire.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0580.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: bamboo flour; in situ solid phase method; esterification modification; substituting degree; hydrophobicity
Online: 30 July 2018 (10:24:06 CEST)
Bamboo plastic composites have become a hot research topic and a key focus of research. However, the many strong, polar, hydrophilic hydroxyl groups in bamboo flour (BF) results in poor interfacial compatibility between BF and hydrophobic polymers. Maleic anhydride-esterified (MAH-e-BF) and lactic acid-esterified bamboo flour (LA-e-BF) were prepared using an in situ solid-phase esterification method with BF as the raw material and maleic anhydride or lactic acid as the esterifying agent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results confirmed that BF esterification with maleic anhydride and lactic acid was successful, with the esterification degrees of MAH-e-BF and LA-e-BF at 21.04 and 14.36%%, respectively. Esterified BF was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, contact angle testing, X-ray diffractometry, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results demonstrated that esterified BF surfaces were covered with graft polymer and the surface roughness and bonding degree of MAH-e-BF clearly larger than those of LA-e-BF. The hydrophobicity of esterified BF was significantly higher than BF and the hydrophobicity of MAH-e-BF better than LA-e-BF. The crystalline structure of esterified BF showed some damage, with MAH-e-BF exhibiting a greater decrease in crystallinity than LA-e-BF. Overall, the esterification reaction improved BF thermoplasticity, with the thermoplasticity of MAH-e-BF appearing better than LA-e-BF.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0462.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: membrane hyperpolarization; SLO3; contraception; potassium channels; sperm; acrosomal exocytosis; capacitation; hyperactivated motility; SLO channels; male fertility
Online: 6 June 2023 (14:01:18 CEST)
Sperm cells must undergo a complex maturation process after ejaculation to be able to fertilize an egg. One component of this maturation is hyperpolarization of the membrane potential to a more negative value. The ion channel responsible for this hyperpolarization, SLO3, was first cloned in 1998, and since then much progress has been made to determine how the channel is regulated and how its function intertwines with various signaling pathways involved in sperm maturation. Although SLO3 was originally thought to be present only in the sperm of mammals, recent evidence suggests that a primordial form of the gene is more widely expressed in some fish species. As with many reproductive genes, SLO3 is rapidly evolving with low conservation between closely related species and different regulatory and pharmacological profiles. Despite these differences, SLO3 appears to have a conserved role in regulating sperm membrane potential and driving large changes in response to stimuli. As with the differences in regulation of the channel, the effect of this hyperpolarization of the membrane potential may vary among mammalian species. Recent discoveries have elucidated the role of SLO3 in these processes in human sperm and provided tools to target the channel to affect human fertility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0855.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: transfer RNA-derived small RNAs; pathological cardiac hypertrophy; small RNA sequencing; biomarkers
Online: 24 April 2023 (11:01:16 CEST)
Background: It remains unclear whether transfer RNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) play a role in pathological cardiac hypertrophy (PCH). We aimed to clarify the expression profile of tsRNAs and disclose their relationship to the clinical phenotype of PCH and the putative role. Methods: Small RNA sequencing was performed in the plasma of PCH patients and healthy volunteers. In a larger sample size and angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang II)-stimulated H9c2 cells, the data were validated by real-time qPCR. The atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were examined in Ang II-stimulated H9c2 cells. The role of tsRNAs in the pathogenesis of PCH was explored by bioinformatics analysis. Results: A total of 4185 differentially expressed tsRNAs were identified, of which 4 and 5 tsRNAs were observed to be significantly differentially upregulated and downregulated expressed. Of the 5 down-regulated tsRNAs, 4 of them were verified to be significantly down-regulated in the larger sample group, among which tRF-30-3JVIJMRPFQ5D, tRF-16-R29P4PE, tRF-21-NB8PLML3E, and tRF-21-SWRYVMMV0 had areas under the curve to diagnose concentric hypertrophy. The 4 down-regulated tsRNAs were negatively correlated with left ventricular posterior wall dimensions in PCH patients (r=-0.4227; r=-0.4517; r=-0.5567; r=-0.4223). The levels of ANP and BNP as well as cell size were decreased in Ang II-stimulated H9c2 cells with 21-NB8PLML3E mimic transfection. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the target genes of tRF-21-NB8PLML3E were mainly enriched in the metabolic pathway and involved in the regulation of ribosomes. Conclusion: The plasma tsRNAs tRF-21-NB8PLML3E might be considered biomarkers in patients with PCH with early screening potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0897.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: lung cancer; platinum-based chemotherapy; ERCC5; Genetic polymorphism; prognosis
Online: 13 October 2023 (11:34:21 CEST)
Background: Lung cancer is still the most lethal malignancy in the world from the report of Cancer Statistics in 2021. Platinum-based chemotherapy combined immunotherapy is the first-line treatment in lung cancer patients. However, the 5-year survival rate always affected by the adverse reaction and drug resistance caused by platinum-based chemotherapy. DNA damage and repair system is one of the important mechanisms which can affect the response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome in lung cancer patients. Objective: The objective of this study is to find the relationship between the polymorphisms of DNA repair genes with the prognosis in platinum-based chemotherapy in lung cancer patients. Patients and Methods: We performed genotyping in 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Excision Repair Cross-Complementation group (ERCC) genes and X-ray Repair Cross-Complementing (XRCC) genes of 345 lung cancer patients by Sequenom MassARRAY. We used Cox proportional hazard models, state and plink to analyze the associations between SNPs and the prognosis of lung cancer patients. Results: We found that the ERCC5 rs873601 was associated with the overall survival time in lung cancer patients treat by platinum-based chemotherapy (p=0.031*). We also discovered that the polymorphisms in rs873601 was significantly associated with the prognosis in age more than 55 years, Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) and smoking patients, Long Intergenic Non-protein Coding RNA (PNKY) rs2444933 in age less than 55 years, SCLC, metastasis and stage III/IV/ED patients, Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR1) rs3740051 in SCLC and metastasis patients, PNKY rs1869641 in SCLC patients, XRCC5 rs1051685 in non-metastasis patients, respectively. Conclusion: The ERCC5 rs873601(G>A) maybe a valuable biomarker for predicting the prognosis in lung cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Statements and Declarations: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0505.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Mucilaginibacer rubeus；Mucilaginibacter kameinonensis; genomic island; evolution; heavy metal resistance; draft genome sequence; CTnDOT
Online: 22 October 2018 (15:21:18 CEST)
Heavy metals are compounds that can be hazardous and impair growth of living organisms. Bacteria have evolved the capability not only to cope with heavy metals but also to detoxify polluted environments. Three heavy metal-resistant strains of Mucilaginibacer rubeus and one of Mucilaginibacter kameinonensis were isolated from the gold/copper Zijin mining site, Longyan, Fujian, China. These strains were shown to exhibit high resistance to heavy metals with minimal inhibitory concentration reaching up to 3.5 mM Cu(II), 21 mM Zn(II), 1.2 mM Cd(II), and 10.0 mM As(III). Genomes of the four strains were sequenced by Illumina. Sequence analyses revealed the presence of a high abundance of heavy metal resistance (HMR) determinants. One of the strain, M. rubeus P2, carried genes encoding 6 putative P1B-1-ATPase, 5 putative P1B-3-ATPase and 4 putative Zn(II)/Cd(II) P1B-4 type ATPase, and 16 putative RND-type metal transporter systems. Moreover, the four genomes carry a high abundance of genes coding for putative metal binding chaperones. Analysis of the close vicinity of these HMR determinants uncovered the presence of clusters of genes potentially associated with mobile genetic elements. These loci include genes coding for tyrosine recombinases (integrases) and subunits of mating pore (type 4 secretion system) respectively allowing integration/excision and conjugative transfer of numerous genomic islands. Further in silico analyses revealed that their genetic organization and gene products resemble the Bacteroides integrative and conjugative element CTnDOT. These results highlight the pivotal role of genomic islands in the acquisition and dissemination of adaptive traits, allowing for rapid adaption of bacteria and colonization of hostile environments.