REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0351.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: photochemistry; photofolding; single-chain nanoparticles
Online: 30 October 2019 (09:03:24 CET)
Clean use of photons from light to activate chemical reactions offer many possibilities in different fields, from chemistry and biology to materials science and medicine. This review article describes the advances carried out in last decades toward the phototriggered synthesis of single-chain polymer nanoparticles (SCNPs) as soft nanomaterials with promising applications in enzyme-mimicking catalysis and nanomedicine, among other different uses. First, we summarize different strategies developed to synthesize SCNPs based on photoactivated intrachain homocoupling, phototriggered intrachain heterocoupling and photogenerated collapse induced by external cross-linker. Next, we comprehensively review the emergent topic of photoactivated multifolding applied to SCNP construction. Finally, we conclude by summarizing recent strategies towards phototriggered disassembly of SCNPs.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0379.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Flow Chemistry; Photochemistry; Radiochemistry; Protein Conjugation.
Online: 20 January 2021 (14:55:28 CET)
89Zr-radiolabelled proteins functionalised with desferrioxamine B are a cornerstone of diagnostic positron emission tomography. In the clinical setting, 89Zr-labelled proteins are produced manually. Here, we explore the potential of using a microfluidic photochemical flow reactor to prepare 89Zr-radiolabelled proteins. The light-induced functionalisation and 89Zr-radiolabelling of human serum albumin ([89Zr]ZrDFO-PEG3-Et-azepin-HSA) was achieved by flow photochemistry with a decay-corrected radiochemical yield (RCY) of 31.2±1.3% (n = 3) and radiochemical purity >90%. In comparison, a manual batch photoreactor synthesis produced the same radiotracer in a decay-corrected RCY of 59.6±3.6% (n = 3) with an equivalent RCP >90%. The results indicate that photoradiolabelling in flow is a feasible platform for the automated production of protein-based 89Zr-radiotracers, but further refinement of the apparatus, and optimisation of the method is required before the flow process is competitive with manual reactions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0034.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: hydrogen; biocatalysis; hydride chemistry; photochemistry; infrared spectroscopy
Online: 3 July 2020 (12:12:12 CEST)
Hydrogenases are iron-sulfur enzymes that catalyze proton reduction and H2 oxidation with outstanding efficiency. They are considered blueprints for the design of transition metal complexes, e.g. as heterogenous catalysts in the context of H2 production from water. Moreover, hydrogenases are biological model systems for metal hydride chemistry and proton-coupled electron transfer. Depending on the composition of the active site cofactor, [NiFe]-hydrogenases are distinguished from [FeFe]-hydrogenases. The former binds a hetero bimetallic nickel/iron site, embedded in the protein by four cysteine ligands. The later, by contrast, carries a homo bimetallic iron/iron site attached to the protein by only a single cysteine. Carbon monoxide and cyanide ligands (CO/CN) at the active site facilitated detailed investigations of hydrogenase catalysis by infrared spectroscopy, owing to strong signals and redox-dependent frequency shifts. However, the details of proton transfer have not been addressed experimentally.We found that specific redox state transitions in [NiFe]- and [FeFe]-hydrogenase can be triggered by visible light to record extremely sensitive ‘light-minus-dark’ infrared difference spectra monitoring key amino acid residues as shown in the ToC figure. As these transitions are coupled to protonation changes, our data allowed investigating dynamic hydrogen-bonding changes that go well beyond the resolution of protein crystallography. In [NiFe]-hydrogenase, photolysis of the bridging hydride ligand in the ‘Ni-C’ state was followed by rapid accumulation of the ‘Ni-SIa’ state and/or ‘Ni-L’ state. Infrared difference spectra in various isotopic media clearly indicated the formation of a protonated cysteine residue as well as hydrogen-bonding changes involving the COOH group of a glutamic acid residue and a ‘dangling water’ molecule. These findings are in excellent agreement with crystallographic analyses of [NiFe]-hydrogenase in the Ni-R state and allowed devising a molecular precise model of catalytic proton transfer. In [FeFe]-hydrogenase, an external redox dye was used to accumulate the ‘Hred’ state over the oxidized resting state ‘Hox’. Infrared difference spectra of wild-type enzyme and numerous amino acid variants indicated hydrogen-bonding changes involving the COOH groups of two glutamic acid residues. Moreover, we noted the deprotonation of an arginine residue. Crystallographic analyses of [FeFe]-hydrogenase in the Hox state failed to explain the rapid proton transfer due to a ‘breach’ in the succession of residues. To this end, our findings facilitated a molecular precise model of ‘discontinued’ proton transfer.The comparison of catalytic proton transfer in bimetallic hydrogenases emphasizes the role of the outer coordination sphere. We suggest that the stable protonation of a nickel-ligating cysteine in [NiFe]-hydrogenase has a crucial influence on the preferred direction of proton flow and catalysis (i.e., H2 oxidation). On the contrary, proton transfer in [FeFe]-hydrogenase involves an adjacent cysteine as a relay group that promotes both proton release and proton uptake. We presume that this causes the notable bidirectionality of [FeFe]-hydrogenase. These observations must guide the design of biomimetic compounds for the production or consumption of H2.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0234.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Photosynthesis; Photoelectrochemical Devices; Biohybrid; Synthetic Biology; Photochemistry; Photoelectrochemistry; Hydrogen Evolution
Online: 10 August 2020 (04:20:58 CEST)
Abstract: The biological process of photosynthesis was critical in catalyzing the oxygenation of Earth’s atmosphere 2.5 billion years ago, changing the course of development of life on Earth. Recently, the fields of applied and synthetic photosynthesis have utilized the light-driven protein-pigment supercomplexes central to photosynthesis for the photocatalytic production of fuel and other various valuable products. The reaction center Photosystem I is of particular interest in applied photosynthesis due to its high stability post-purification, non-geopolitical limitation, and its ability to generate the greatest reducing power found in Nature. These remarkable properties have been harnessed for the photocatalytic production of a number of valuable products in the applied photosynthesis research field. These primarily include photocurrents and molecular hydrogen as fuels. The use of artificial reaction centers to generate substrates and reducing equivalents to drive non-photoactive enzymes for valuable product generation has been a long-standing area of interest of the synthetic photosynthesis research field. In this review, we cover advances in these areas and further speculate synthetic and applied photosynthesis as photocatalysts for the generation of valuable products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0077.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: computational theoretical chemistry; photochemistry; nonadiabatic dynamics; ultrafast processes; surface hopping; nucleobases; thymine
Online: 15 November 2016 (11:06:06 CET)
After UV excitation, gas phase thymine returns to ground state in 5 to 7 ps, showing multiple time constants. There is no consensus on the assignment of these processes, with a dispute between models claiming that thymine is trapped either in the first (S1) or in the second (S2) excited states. In the present study, nonadiabatic dynamics simulation of thymine is performed on the basis of ADC(2) surfaces, to understand the role of dynamic electron correlation on the deactivation pathways. The results show that trapping in S2 is strongly reduced in comparison to previous simulations considering only non-dynamic electron correlation on CASSCF surfaces. The reason for the difference is traced back to the energetic cost for formation of a CO p bond in S2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0488.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Metal-carbonyl complexes; [FeFe]-hydrogenases; density functional theory; time-dependent DFT; organometallic photochemistry
Online: 25 January 2021 (11:43:03 CET)
FeIFeI Fe2(S2C3H6)(CO)6(µ-CO) (1a-CO) and its FeIFeII cationic species (2a+-CO) are the simplest model of the CO-inhibited [FeFe] hydrogenase active site, which is known to undergo CO photolysis within a temperature- dependent process whose products and mechanism are still a matter of debate. Using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) computations, the ground state and low-lying excited state potential energy surfaces (PESs) of 1a-CO and 2a+-CO have been explored aimed at elucidating the dynamics of the CO photolysis yielding Fe2(S2C3H6)(CO)6 (1a) and Fe2(S2C3H6)(CO)6+ (2a+), two simple models of the catalytic site of the enzyme. Two main results came out from these investigations. First, a-CO and 2a+-CO are both bound with respect to any CO dissociation with lowest free energy barriers around 10 kcal mol-1, suggesting that at least 2a+-CO might be synthetized. Second, focusing on the cationic form, we found at least two clear excited state channels along the PESs of 2a+-CO that are unbound with respect to equatorial CO dissociation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0363.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: Photochemistry; Photophysics; Coordination Chemistry; Metal atom effect; Photodynamic Therapy; Triplet Photosensitizer; Dipyrrinato Complexes; Singlet Oxygen Generation; Triplet-triplet Annihilation; Heavy atom effect.
Online: 23 September 2022 (09:14:36 CEST)
Within this work we review the metal coordination effect on the photophysics of metal dipyrrinato complexes. Dipyrrinato complexes are promising candidates in the search for alternative transition metal photosensitizers for application in photodynamic therapy (PDT). These complexes can be activated by irradiation with light of a specific wavelength, after which cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated. The metal coordination allows for the use of the heavy atom effect, which can enhance the triplet generation necessary for generation of ROS. Additionally, the flexibility of these complexes for metal ions, substitutions and ligands allows the possibility to tune their photophysical properties. A general overview of the mechanism of photodynamic therapy and the properties of the triplet photosensitizers is given, followed by further details of dipyrrinato complexes described in the literature that show relevance as photosensitizers for PDT. In particular, the photophysical properties of Re(I), Ru(II), Ir(III), Ni(II), Cu(II), Pd(II), Pt(II), Zn(II), Ga(III), In(III), Al(III), Sn(II), and P dipyrrinato complexes are discussed. The potential for future development in the field of (dipyrrinato)metal complexes is addressed and several new research topics are suggested throughout this work. We propose that significant advances could be made for heteroleptic bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) and homoleptic bis(dipyrrinato)palladium(II) complexes and their application as photosensitizers for PDT.