ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0208.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Deep belief network; Diabetes; Prediction; Risk Factors; Deep Learning
Online: 12 January 2023 (03:54:15 CET)
Diabetes mellitus is a popular life-threatening disease and patients may gradually have started suffering from other diabetes-causing diseases such as heart attacks, stroke, hypertension, blurry vision, blindness, foot ulcer, amputation, kidney damage and other organ failures before diagnosis. Early detection can help reduce the fatality of this disease. Deep learning models have proven very useful in disease detection and computer-aided diagnosis. In this work, we proposed a deep unsupervised machine learning model for early detection of diabetes using voting ensemble feature selection and deep belief neural networks (DBN). Dataset was obtained from an online repository containing responses of prediagnosed patients to direct questionnaires administered in Sylhet Diabetes Hospital in Sylhet, Bangladesh. The dataset was preprocessed and preprocessed. Features were reduced using the ensemble feature selector. The DBN model was pretrained and tuned to obtain optimal performance. The model was also compared with other models with no multiple hidden layers. The DBN performed at its relative best with F1-measure, precision and recall of 1.00, 0.92 and 1.00 respectively. We conclude that DBN is a useful tool for an unsupervised early prediction of Type II diabetes mellitus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0041.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; pandemic; compartmental model; Nigeria
Online: 4 July 2022 (08:42:03 CEST)
It is no news that the COVID–19 pandemic has affected many persons in different ways. As the number of reported cases rises across the globe, efforts are geared towards production and administration of effective vaccines for the disease. However, many developing countries are faced with the dilemma of how to slow the spread and flatten the curves of the disease as the available vaccines are not enough. Interestingly, the dynamics of the disease can be analysed to get useful insights to enhance the making of suitable preventive policies that will slow the spread, ultimately flatten the curves of the disease and also help in managing any future occurrence. In this work, the aim is to analyse the dynamics, and estimate the basic reproduction number of the second wave of the pandemic in Nigeria using a Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Deceased (SIRD) compartmental–based model. The dynamics of the disease is described by a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The model takes into consideration the current control policies in place - social distancing, mask usage, personal hygiene and quarantine. Available data provided by Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), World Health Organization (WHO) and Wolfram Data Repository were used for the computations. The Quasi–Newton algorithm was implemented in fitting the proposed model to the available data and a sensitivity analysis was presented. Major parameters - effective contact rate, average recovery time, average mortality rate, and overall effectiveness of the control policies - influencing the dynamics of the disease, and the basic reproduction numbers were estimated. The turning points of the disease during the second wave were also obtained. The proposed model gave estimated values for the parameters influencing the spread of the disease. Also, the measure of the overall effectiveness of the current control policies gave insight into how effective the measures are.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0023.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: Taylor; exponentially-fitted; two-parameter; periodic; oscillatory; frequency
Online: 1 November 2022 (07:29:50 CET)
Classical numerical methods for solving ordinary differential equations often produce less accurate results when applied to problems with oscillatory or periodic behaviour. To adapt them for such problems, they are usually modified using the exponential fitting technique. This adaptation allows for the construction of new methods from their classical counterparts. The new methods are usually more accurate, efficient and suitable for handling the oscillatory or periodic behaviour of the problem. In this work, we construct a two-parameter exponentially-fitted Taylor method suitable for solving oscillatory or periodic problems that possess two frequencies. The construction algorithm is based on a proposed six-step flowchart discussed by authors in related literature. Two standard test problems were used to illustrate the accuracy and performance of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0238.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: NLP; NLU; Twitter; Sentiment Analysis; Opinion Mining; Nigeria; Election; Machine Learning; BERT; LSTM; SVM
Online: 17 October 2022 (12:01:42 CEST)
Introduction: Social media platforms such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, among others have been used as a tool for staging protests, opinion polls, campaign strategy, medium of agitation and a place of interest expression especially during elections. Past studies have established people’s opinion elections using social media posts. The advent of state-of-the-art algorithms for unstructured text processing implies tremendous progress in natural language processing and understanding. Aim: In this work, a Natural Language framework is designed to understand Nigeria 2023 presidential election based on public opinion using Twitter dataset. Methods: Raw datasets concerning discourse around Nigeria 2023 elections from Twitter of 2,059,113 18 dimensions were collected. Sentiment analysis was performed on the preprocessed dataset using three different machine learning models namely: Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Network, Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) and Linear Support Vector Classifier (LSVC) models. Personal tweet analysis of the three candidates provided insight on their campaign strategies and personalities while public tweet analysis established the public’s opinion about them. The performance of the models was also compared using accuracy, recall, false positive rate, precision and F-measure. Results: LSTM model gave an accuracy, precision, recall, AUC and f-measure of 88%, 82.7%, 87.2% , 87.6% and 82.9% respectively; the BERT model gave an accuracy, precision, recall, AUC and f-measure of 94%, 88.5%, 92.5%, 94.7% and 91.7% respectively while the LSVC model gave an accuracy, precision, recall, AUC and f-measure of 73%, 81.4%, 76.4%, 81.2% and 79.2% respectively. Conclusion: The experimental results show that sentiment analysis and other Natural Language Processing tasks can aid in the understanding of the social media space. Results also revealed the leverage of each aspirant towards winning the election. We conclude that sentiment analysis can form a general basis for generating insights for election and modeling election outcomes.