ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0001.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Malassezia, Caenorhabditis elegans, Tenebrio molitor
Online: 1 October 2018 (10:12:54 CEST)
Malassezia species are part of human commensal microbiota and is also related to diseases. Little is known about the interaction of these microorganisms with their host. Here we established two standard culture conditions for Malassezia spp. to perform infection assays using C. elegans and T. molitor. Invertebrate hosts infected by Malassezia spp. cultured in M9M resulted in higher death rate on survival assays when compared to yeasts cultured in standard Dixon medium indicating that M9M cultured Malassezia species have increased virulence. The culture and infection conditions established in this work, using invertebrate alternative models, are valuable tools to understand Malassezia-host interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0637.v1
Online: 26 September 2020 (13:44:40 CEST)
Malassezia is lipid-dependent commensal yeast of the human skin. The different culture media and skin sampling methods used to grow these fastidious yeasts are a source of heterogeneity in culture-based epidemiological study results. This study aimed to compare the performances of three methods of skin sampling, and two culture media for the detection of Malassezia yeasts by culture from the human skin. Three skin sampling methods, namely sterile gauze, dry swab and TranswabTM with transport medium, were applied on 10 healthy volunteers. Each sample was further inoculated onto either the novel FastFung medium or the reference Dixon agar for the detection of Malassezia spp. by culture. At least one colony of Malassezia spp. grew on 93/300 (31%) of the cultures, corresponding to 150 samplings. The positive culture rate was 67%, 18%, and 15% (P < 10-3), for samples collected with sterile gauze, TranswabTM, and dry swab, respectively. The positive culture rate was 62% and 38% (P < 0.003) by using the FastFung and the Dixon media, respectively. Our results showed that sterile gauze rubbing skin sampling followed by inoculation on FastFung medium should be implemented in the routine clinical laboratory procedure for Malassezia spp. cultivation.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0601.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Malassezia; selective culture medium; Rapamycin; isolation; polymicrobial samples.
Online: 27 July 2021 (11:29:17 CEST)
Malassezia species are fastidious and slow-growing yeasts whose isolation from polymicrobial samples is hampered by fast-growing microorganisms. Malassezia selective culture media are needed because Malassezia are resistant to cycloheximide, but some fungi, including the chief human commensal Candida albicans resist to this compound. This study aimed to test whether the macrolide rapamycin could be used in combination with cycloheximide to develop a Malassezia-selective culture medium. Rapamycin susceptibility testing was performed via microdilution assays in modified Dixon against M. furfur and five Candida spp. The MIC was the lowest concentration producing 90% growth inhibition. Rapamycin medium ± cycloheximide 500 mg/L was also added to FastFung solid and yeast suspensions were inoculated and incubated for 72h. Rapamycin MICs against Candida spp. ranged from 0.5 to 2 mg/L, except for C. krusei whose MIC was >32 mg/L. M. furfur stains were rapamycin resistant. Rapamycin and cycloheximide supplementation of the FastFung medium effectively inhibited the growth of non-Malassezia yeast, including the cycloheximide-resistant C. albicans and C. tropicalis. Based on our findings, we recommend using this “MalaSelect” medium for Malassezia isolation and culture from polymicrobial samples.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Allergy; Alternaria; Aspergillus; dermatophytes; fungal allergens; immunocompetence; indoor/outdoor allergens; Malassezia.
Online: 2 February 2022 (11:30:49 CET)
Fungi kingdom comprises ubiquitous forms of life with 1.5 billion years, mostly phytopathogenic and commensal for humans and animals. However, in the presence of impaired conditions fungi may cause disease by intoxicating, infecting or sensitizing with allergy. Different genera may be implicated as etiological agents for humans and animals, with Alternaria, Aspergillus, dermatophytes like Microsporum and Trichophyton, and Malassezia as the commonly implicated. Alternaria and Malassezia stand as the most commonly associated to either allergy or infection, immediately followed by Aspergillus, while dermatophytes are usually associated to ring worm skin infection. Research in veterinary field is not much but necessary.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0528.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: In vitro; in vivo; animal model; Malassezia; infection; host-pathogen interaction; Galleria mellonella
Online: 22 July 2020 (11:34:57 CEST)
Malassezia is a lipid-dependent genus of yeasts known for being an important part of the skin mycobiota. These yeasts have been associated in the development of skin disorders and cataloged as a causal agent of systemic infections under specific conditions, making them opportunistic pathogens. Little is known about the host-microbe interaction of Malassezia spp., and unraveling this implies the implementation of infection models. In this mini review we present different models that have been implemented in the fungal infections study with greater attention in Malassezia spp. infections. These models range from in vitro (cell cultures and ex vivo tissue), to in vivo (murine models, rabbits, guinea pigs, insects, nematodes, and amoebas). We additionally highlight the alternative models that reduce the use of mammals as model organisms, which have been gaining importance in the study of fungal host-microbe interactions. This is due to the fact that these systems have shown to have reliable results, which correlate with those obtained from mammalian models. Example of alternative models are Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Tenebrio molitor, and Galleria mellonella. These are invertebrates that have been implemented in the study of Malassezia spp. infections in order to identify differences in virulence between Malassezia species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0416.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Malassezia; Chronic diseases; psoriasis; atopic dermatitis; chronic rhinosinusitis; asthma; cystic fibrosis; HIV infection; inflammatory bowel disease; colorectal cancer; neurodegenerative diseases
Online: 24 September 2021 (08:13:07 CEST)
Malassezia are lipid-dependent basidiomycetous yeast of the normal skin microbiome, although Malassezia DNA has been recently detected in other body sites and has been associated with cer-tain chronic human diseases. This new perspective raises many questions. Are these yeasts truly present in the investigated body site or were they contaminated by other body sites, adjacent or not? Does this DNA contamination come from living or dead yeast? If these yeasts are alive, do they belong to the resident mycobiota or are they transient colonizers which are not permanently established within these niches? And, finally, are these yeasts associated with certain chronic diseases or not? In an attempt to shed light on this knowledge gap, we critically re-viewed the 31 published studies focusing on the association of Malassezia spp. with chronic human diseases, including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis (AD), chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF), HIV infection, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer (CRC), and neurodegenerative diseases.