ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0295.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: additive manufacturing; rapid solidification; microstructural evolution; non-equilibrium; quasi-equilibrium; multi-phase field method; CALPHAD database; nickel alloy
Online: 11 March 2021 (07:40:42 CET)
Solidification microstructure is formed under high cooling rates and temperature gradients in powder-based additive manufacturing. In this study, a non-equilibrium multi-phase field method (MPFM), which was based on a finite interface dissipation model proposed by Steinbach et. al., coupled with a CALPHAD database was developed for a multicomponent Ni alloy. A qua-si-equilibrium MPFM was also developed for comparison. Two-dimensional equiaxed micro-structural evolution for the Ni (Bal.)–Al–Co–Cr–Mo–Ta–Ti–W–C alloy was performed at various cooling rates. The temperature–γ fraction profiles obtained under 10^5 K/s using non- and qua-si-equilibrium MPFMs were in good agreement with each other. Over 10^6 K/s, the differences between non- and quasi-equilibrium methods grew as the cooling rate increased. The non-equilibrium solidification was strengthened over a cooling rate of 10^6 K/s. Colum-nar-solidification microstructural evolution was performed under cooling rates from 5×10^5 K/s to 1×10^7 K/s at various temperature gradient values under the constant interface velocity (0.1 m/s). The results showed that as the cooling rate increased, the cell space decreased in both methods, and the non-equilibrium MPFM agreed well with experimental measurements. Our results show that the non-equilibrium MPFM can simulate solidification microstructure in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0026.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: japanese larch (larix kaempferi); heterophyllous shoots; year-to-year variation; electron transport rate; nitrogen remobilization rate
Online: 3 December 2019 (11:55:45 CET)
Ground-level ozone (O3) increases in the northeastern part of Eurasia, where larch species are dominant trees and have been planted intensively. The Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi; hereafter larch) is classified as the tree species most of its sensitive to O3 based on data from long-shoot needles of seedlings. This criterion should be reconsidered based on O3 uptake, which is strongly depended on stomatal conductance (Gs) of adult trees through the difference in relevant needle traits. Because Gs is closely correlated with photosynthetic activity, we measured the in situ seasonal and yearly change in photosynthetic function, needle mass per area (LMA) and nitrogen (N) content of both short- and long-shoot needles of the canopy of larch trees over successive 3 years. No difference was observed in the in light saturated photosynthetic rate at ambient CO2 (Psat) between needles of hetero types of shoot in the latter part of the growing season, but clear differences were found within a specific year, indicating that seasonal changes in climatic factors determine Psat in the long term. The Psat-N relations differed significantly between the needle types. However, Psat at saturated CO2 (Pmax)-N was quite similar, implying that the CO2 diffusion difference between short- and long-shoots is responsible for the differing Psat -N. In conclusion, seasonal and yearly variations in photosynthetic capacity are mainly determined mainly by climatic variations, whereas shoot type determined the traits of photosynthetic N utilization as well as Gs regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0106.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: osteoarthritis; synovitis; articular cartilage; microfocus X-ray CT; 3D analysis
Online: 9 February 2020 (15:49:10 CET)
The aim of this study was to clarify degradation characteristics in each tissue of the knee complex of a medial meniscectomy (MMx)-induced knee osteoarthritis (KOA) animal model using classical methods and a new comprehensive evaluation method called contrast-enhanced X-ray micro-computed tomography (CEX-μCT), which was developed in the study. Surgical MMx was performed in the right knee joints of five male Wistar rats to induce KOA. At 4 wk post-surgery, the synovitis was evaluated using qPCR. Degradations of the articular cartilage of the tibial plateau were evaluated using classical methods and CEX-μCT. Evaluation of the synovitis demonstrated significantly increased expression levels of inflammation-associated marker genes in MMx-treated knees compared to that in sham-treated knees. Evaluation of the articular cartilage using classical methods showed that MMx fully induced degradation of the cartilage. Evaluation using CEX-μCT showed that local areas of the medial cartilage of the tibial plateau were significantly reduced in MMx-treated knees compared to that in sham-treated knees. On the other hand, total cartilage volumes were significantly increased in MMx-treated knees. Based on the findings of this study, the researchers in KOA research could be helped to select an optimal KOA model to discover new drugs.