ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0475.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Hepatitis C virus; Genetic; Chronic Hepatitis C; Liver, Elastography
Online: 27 February 2023 (13:33:51 CET)
INTRODUCTION Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has a high genetic diversity, with seven genotypes with 86 subtypes. This genetic variability confers persistence in the infection and escape of the immune system with evolution to cirrhosis and cancer. Environmental factors can contribute to different disease progression, being essential to assess the viral genotype in the infection and discuss the environmental particularities of Eastern Amazon, and the frequencies of Liver fibrosis between different HCV genotypes in patients living in a region of the Brazilian Eastern Brazilian Amazon. METHODS Consists in an observational cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic and clinical data of 76 individuals diagnosed with Hepatitis C between 2019 and 2020 in public health services were selected. Data collected was tabulated in Microsoft Excel 2010TM spreadsheets and analysed in GraphPad Prism 5.0TM. Liver fibrosis was associated with genetic subtypes. RESULTS Subtype 1b was predominant (42.1%), followed by 1a (13%) and 3a (1.3%). 69.7% of participants had chronic hepatitis, with mild fibrosis (F1/F2) being the most prevalent (38.1%). Severe fibrosis was detected in 75% of individuals infected with the subtype 1b, that is associated with more severe disease. CONCLUSIONS We suggest further studies, to assess other communities in the region, as well as the monitoring of these patients with Liver Elastography to determine the disease evolution and its better management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0145.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; post COVID; liver; aspartate aminotransferase; risk factors
Online: 8 February 2023 (10:47:25 CET)
The long-term laboratory aspects of the effects of COVID-19 on liver function are still not well understood. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the hepatic clinical-laboratory profile of patients with up to 20 months of long-term COVID-19. A total of 243 patients of both sexes aged 18 years or older hospitalised in the acute phase of COVID-19 were included in this study. Liver function analysis was performed. Changes were identified in the mean levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and ferritin. Inflammatory markers such as ferritin > 300 U/L were observed in the group that presented more changes in liver function markers (ALT, AST, and GGT). Age ≥ 60 years, male sex, AST > 25 U/L, and GGT ≥ 50 or 32 U/L were associated with ALT > 29 U/L. There was a correlation between ALT and AST, LDH, GGT, and ferritin. Our findings suggest that ALT and AST levels may be elevated in patients with long-term COVID, especially in those hospitalised in the acute phase. In addition, ALT > 29 U/L was associated with other markers of liver injury, such as LDH, GGT, and ferritin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0469.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Long COVID; Laboratory Markers; Haematological Tests
Online: 27 February 2023 (09:53:40 CET)
Long COVID affects a significant number of people after acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and haematological changes can persist in the COVID-19 phase. This study aimed to evaluate these haematological laboratory markers, linking them to clinical findings and long-term outcomes in patients with long COVID. This cross-sectional study selected participants from a ‘long COVID’ clinical care programme in the Amazon region. Clinical data and baseline demographics were obtained, and blood samples were collected for quantification of erythrogram-, leukogram-, and plateletgram-related markers. Long COVID was reported for up to 985 days. Patients hospitalised in the acute phase had higher mean red/white cell, platelet, and plateletcrit levels and red cell distribution width. In addition, haematimetric parameters were higher in shorter periods of long COVID. Patients presenting with more than six concomitant long COVID symptoms had a higher white blood cell count, shorter prothrombin time (PT), and increased PT activity. Within up to 985 days of long COVID, our results suggest a probable benign compensation for erythrogram-related markers. Increased levels of leukogram-related markers and increased coagulation activity were observed in the worse long COVID groups, also indicating an exacerbated response after the acute disturbance, which is uncertain and requires further investigation.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0406.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Yellow fever; Liver; Vascular endothelium; Adhesion molecule.
Online: 24 December 2021 (11:41:19 CET)
Yellow fever (YF) is a pansystemic disease caused by the yellow fever virus (YFV), the prototype species of the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus, and has a highly complex host-pathogen relationship, in which endothelial dysfunction reflects viral disease tropism. In this study, the in situ endothelial response was evaluated. Liver tissue samples were collected from 21 YFV-positive patients who died due to the disease and five flavivirus-negative controls who died of other causes and whose hepatic parenchyma architecture was preserved. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissues in the hepatic parenchyma of YF cases showed significantly higher expression of E-selectin, P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and very late antigen-4 in YFV-positive cases than in flavivirus-negative controls. These results indicate that endothelium activation aggravates the inflammatory response by inducing the expression of adhesion molecules that contribute to the rolling, recruitment, migration, and construction of the inflammatory process in the hepatic parenchyma in fatal YF cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0261.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Arboviruses; Histopathology; Cell death; Necrosis; Steatosis; Liver
Online: 16 January 2023 (02:55:43 CET)
Arboviruses such as yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue virus (DENV), and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) presenting wide global dissemination and the pathogenic profile developed in infected individuals, which develop from nonspecific clinical conditions to severe forms, characterized by the promotion of significant lesions in different organs of the harborer, culminating in multiple organ dysfunction. To characterize, quantify, and compare the patterns of histopathological alterations in human liver samples from patients with yellow fever (YF), dengue fever (DF), and chikungunya fever (CF). Analytical cross-sectional study by histopathological analysis with 70 samples of liver patients, collected from 2000 to 2017, with confirmed laboratory diagnosis who died due to infection and complications by the YF, DF, and CF. Of the histopathological findings in human liver samples there was a significant difference between the control and infection groups, with a predominance of alterations in the midzonal area of the three cases analyzed, among the arboviruses studied, the hepatic involvement in cases of YF showed greater intensity of histopathological changes. Among the alterations evaluated, cell swelling, microvesicular steatosis and apoptosis were classified as degree of tissue damage from severe to very severe. The pathological abnormalities associated with infection by YFV, DENV, and CHIKV showed predominance of changes in the midzonal area. We also noted that in among of the arboviruses studied, liver involvement in cases of YFV infection was more intense.