Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: major depressive disorder; functionalized solid lipid nanoparticles; CBR1
Online: 3 July 2019 (12:03:31 CEST)
Nanoparticles offer available tools for MDD research. In this assay, we applied CBR1 (cannabinoid receptor 1) knockout (CB1-/-) mice to study whether functionalized solid lipid nanoparticles loading with curcumin and dexanabinol (Cur/SLNs-HU-211) exhibited anti-depressant outcomes through CBR1. Wild-type (CB1+/+) animals together with CBR1 knockout (CB1-/-) animals received daily injections of Corticosterone (CORT) for 3 weeks to obtain MDD mice model, and then the therapeutic action of Cur/SLNs-HU-211 were evaluated, respectively. Our work show that Cur/SLNs-HU-211 nanoparticles in the existence of CBR1 facilitate an efficient motor function improvement in CORT-induced MDD mice model. Cur/SLNs-HU-211 nanoparticles alleviated symptoms on CB1+/+ MDD mice and resulted in dopamine and norepinephrine recovery following CORT-induced neurotoxicity. In conclusion, the possible mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effect of Cur/SLNs-HU-211 might be the induction of CB1 expression and downstream RASGEF1C and Egr1 expression, together with a significantly upregulation of neuron-specific genes in CB1+/+ mice only. In conclusion, CBR1 is necessary during the process of antidepressant activities of Cur/SLNs-HU-211 nanoparticles. This study confirms that Cur/SLNs-HU-211 nanoparticles based CBR1 in vivo targeting would be a potentially feasible and safe way to motivate future therapeutic strategies of Major Depressive Disorder.
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2); animal reservoir; cross-species transmission; cats
Online: 8 April 2020 (04:43:14 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 causes severe pneumonia epidemics and probably originated in horseshoe bats, but the intermediate host is unknown. The interaction of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and its acceptor protein ACE2 is an important issue in determining viral host range and cross-species infection, while the binding capacity of Spike protein to ACE2 of different species is unknown. Here, we used the atomic structure model of SARS-CoV-2 and human ACE2 to assess the receptor utilization capacity of ACE2s from different species including cats, chimpanzees, dogs, cattles. Our results show, domestic cats (Felis catusc) and dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are more susceptible to infection by SARS-CoV-2 and that they can efficiently transmit the virus to previously uninfected animals that are housed with them. Especially, cats could be a choice of animal model for screening antiviral drugs or vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2.
Subject: Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Infection Control; Epidemic Surveillance; International Cooperation
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:30:01 CET)
The disease COVID-19 is highly infectious, and infectious in asymptomatic incubation period. The national epidemic development has been effectively controlled and continues improving, especially in areas outside Hubei province. Such periodical results were achieved by the joint efforts of the whole society, including not only the hard work and dedication of the front-line medical workers but also the active cooperation of the general public. The strict epidemic prevention and control measurements have brought remarkable control results. In the present study, the basic infection number of the coronavirus R0 (basic replication number of the infection) before and after prevention and control measurements was simulated to elaborate the measurements of the Chinese government on epidemic prevention and control, providing reference for the people around the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0423.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Cross-border travel; Immunity certificate; Regional collaboration; Vaccination certificate; Vaccination passport; Asia
Online: 24 August 2022 (13:54:00 CEST)
COVID-19 vaccination certificates (CVCs) have played a key role in safe reopening of borders for international travel and trade, so understanding key stakeholder perceptions of enablers and barriers for their effective use is critical. The COVID-19 Vaccination Policy Research and Deci-sion-Support Initiative in Asia (CORESIA) was established to address policy questions related to CVCs. We conducted two online surveys, i.e., one for the public and one for health and non-health sector experts, from June to October 2021 in nine Asian countries. Descriptive analysis identified participants, enablers, and barriers. Most participants (78% public, 89% experts) accepted the use of CVCs, primarily to resume international travel (76%). Most respondents in both surveys wanted the minimum vaccination coverage to be 60% before CVCs were implemented nation-wide. Most of the public (82%) agreed to maintain existing non-pharmaceutical interventions, while most experts wanted risk-based testing and quarantine policy for incoming travellers (51%) and both digital and paper format CVCs (64%). Support for CVCs for international travel remains high in Asia. Recognising key enablers and barriers for effective use of CVCs from COVID-19 pandemic may help policymakers draft effective border policies for future epidemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0021.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: maximum surface air temperature; land surface temperature; statistical modeling; MODIS
Online: 3 March 2017 (08:38:19 CET)
Daily maximum surface air temperature (Tamax) is a crucial factor for understanding complex land surface processes under rapid climate change. Remote detection of Tamax has widely relied on the empirical relationship between air temperature and land surface temperature (LST), a product derived from remote sensing. However, little is known about how such a relationship is affected by the high heterogeneity in landscapes and dynamics in seasonality. This study aims to advance our understanding of the roles of land cover and seasonal variation in the estimation of Tamax using the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) LST product. We developed statistical models to link Tamax and LST in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China for five major land-cover types (i.e., forest, shrub, water, impervious surface, cropland, and grassland) and two seasons (i.e., growing season and non-growing season). Results show that the performance of modeling the Tamax-LST relationship was highly dependent on land cover and seasonal variation. Estimating Tamax over grasslands and water bodies achieved superior performance; while uncertainties were high over forested lands that contained extensive heterogeneity in species types, plant structure, and topography. We further found that all the land-cover specific models developed for the plant non-growing season outperformed the corresponding models developed for the growing season. Discrepancies in model performance mainly occurred in the vegetated areas (forest, cropland, and shrub), suggesting an important role of plant phenology in defining the statistical relationship between Tamax and LST. For impervious surfaces, the challenge of capturing the high spatial heterogeneity in urban settings using the low-resolution MODIS data made Tamax estimation a difficult task, which was especially true in the growing season.