REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0430.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: stimuli-responsive polymers; synthetic polypeptide; photo-sensitive; self-assembly; morphological transformation
Online: 30 May 2018 (04:52:30 CEST)
Stimuli-responsive polymeric materials have attracted significant attentions in a variety of high-value-added and industrial applications during the past decade. Among various stimuli, light is of particular interest as a stimulus due to its unique advantages such as precisely spatiotemporal control, mild conditions, ease of use, and tunability. In recent years, a lot of effort toward synthesis of biocompatible and biodegradable polypeptide has resulted in many examples of photo-responsive nanoparticles. Depending on the specific photochemistry, those polypeptide derived nano-assemblies are capable of crosslinking, disassembling, or morphing into other shapes upon light irradiation. In this mini-review, we aim to assess the current state of photo-responsive polypeptide based nanomaterials. First, those “smart” nanomaterials will be categorized by their photo-triggered events (i.e., crosslinking, degradation, and isomerization) which are inherently governed by photo-sensitive functionalities including o-nitrobenzyl, coumarin, azobenzene, cinnamyl, and spiropyran. In addition, the properties and applications of those polypeptide nanomaterials will be highlighted as well. Finally, the current challenges and future directions of this subject will be evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0379.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: porous TiO2; hybrid TiO2/CDs; photocatalysts; photodegradation; large surface areas
Online: 28 June 2022 (06:02:11 CEST)
Electron-hole recombination and narrow range utilization of sunlight limit the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2. We synthesized a carbon dots (CDs) modified TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with flower-like mesoporous structure, i.e., porous TiO2/CDs nanoflowers. Among such hybrid parti-cles, CDs worked as photosensitizers for the mesoporous TiO2 and enabled the resultant TiO2/CDs nanoflowers with a wide-range light absorption. Rhodamine B (Rh-B) was employed as a model organic pollutant to investigate the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2/CDs nanoflowers. The results demonstrated that the decoration of CDs on both TiO2 nanoflowers and P25 NPs enabled a significant improvement of the photocatalytic degradation efficiency compared with the pristine TiO2. TiO2/CDs nanoflowers with porous structure and larger surface areas than P25 showed a higher efficiency owing to prevent local aggregation of carbon materials. All the results revealed that the introduced CDs and the unique mesoporous structure, large surface areas and loads of pore channels of the prepared TiO2 NPs played important roles in the enhancement of the photocatalytic efficiency of the TiO2/CDs hybrid nanoflowers. Such TiO2/CDs composite NPs also opens a door for photodegradation, photocatalytic water splitting and enhanced solar sun-light as light source.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0323.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Controlled Polymerization; Reversible Polymerization; Sustainable Polymers
Online: 15 October 2018 (16:19:19 CEST)
The field of controlled polymerization is growing and evolving at unprecedented rates, facilitating polymer scientists to engineer the structure and property of polymer materials for a variety of applications. However, the lack of degradability, particularly in vinyl polymers, is a general concern for not only environmental sustainability but also biomedical applications. In recent years, there has been a significant effort to develop reversible polymerization approaches in those well-established controlled polymerization systems. Reversible polymerization typically involves two steps including (i) forward polymerization which converts small monomers into macromolecules, and (ii) depolymerization capable of regenerating original monomers. Furthermore, recycled monomers can be repolymerized into new polymers. In this perspective, we highlight recent developments of reversible polymerization in those controlled polymerization systems and offer insight into the promise and utility of reversible polymerization systems. More importantly, the current challenges and future directions to solve those problems are discussed. We hope this perspective can serve as an “initiator” to promote continuing innovations in this fairly new area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0067.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: Mg-Al-Zn-Y magnesium alloy; SIMA; extrusion; semi-solid; microstructure evolution
Online: 15 September 2017 (12:07:30 CEST)
Semi-solid feedstock of AZ80 magnesium alloy modified by minor rare-earth Y element (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 wt.%) were fabricated by strain induces melting activated (SIMA) in the form of extrusion and partial remelting. The effect of Y addition on the microstructure evolution of extruded and isothermal treated alloy was observed by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and quantitative analysis. The results show that the Y addition can refine the microstructure and make the β-Mg17Al12 phases agglomerating. During the subsequent isothermal treatment at 570℃, the average solid grain size, shape factor and liquid fractions increased with prolonged soaking time. Smaller spheroidal solid grains and the larger shape factor were obtained due to Y addition. The coalescence and Ostwald ripening of solid grains operated the coarsening process simultaneously. The coarsening rate constants of AZ80M1 (0.2 wt.% Y addition) of 164.22 μm3s-1 was approximately four times less than the un-modified AZ80 alloy of 689.44 μm3s-1. In contrast, the desirable semi-solid structure featured by fine, well globular solid grains and appropriate liquid fractions and shape factor was achieved in AZ80M1 alloy treated at 570℃ for 20-30 min.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0460.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Geese; Pasture grazing; Intestinal alkaline phosphatase; Lipopolysaccharides; Systemic inflammation; Keap1-Nrf2
Online: 9 October 2023 (07:32:41 CEST)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a major risk factor for the development of oxidation and inflammation. Ryegrass (pasture), a natural dietary fiber source, acts as an antioxidant with well-known anti-inflammatory properties. The current study aimed to examine the alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-dependent Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1- Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Keap1-Nrf2) signaling pathway that facilitates the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of pasture and its protective effects on ileal permeability, systemic inflammation, nutrient absorption, liver dysfunction, growth performance, intestinal organ development, and metabolic syndrome in commercial diet-challenged geese. The lipopolysaccharides (LPS), ALP, ROS, and tight junction proteins were determined from the ileum tissues, and the antioxidant enzymes, immunoglobulins, and metabolic syndrome were determined from liver tissues via Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. While the Nrf2 and LPS/ROS/Keap1-induced inflammatory cytokines were determined by the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method. The intestinal morphology was examined by Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining to determine nutrient absorption in ileal tissues. Pasture-dependent ALP activity significantly ameliorated commercial diet-induced LPS and ROS-facilitated ileal barrier dysfunction and systemic inflammation. The pasture supplementation induced nutrient absorption by influencing intestinal organ development. Our biochemical assays showed that the activation of Nrf2 significantly increased antioxidant enzymes and immunoglobulins, and decreased Keap1 and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in the liver tissues after pasture supplementation. The correlation analysis of ALP, LPS, ROS, and Keap1-Nrf2 pathway-dependent antioxidant enzymes with other host markers showed that pasture supplementation induced intestinal barrier function via reducing LPS/ROS-induced intestinal permeability and systemic inflammation in the ileum and liver tissues. Pasture intake might attenuate LPS/ROS-induced gut permeability, systemic inflammation, and metabolic syndrome and augment gut barrier functions, nutrient absorption, immunity, and growth performance, possibly by its Keap1-Nrf2 pathway-dependent antioxidant properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0088.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Caesalpinia sappan; cassane diterpenes; N bridge; antimalarial activity
Online: 13 October 2017 (06:30:04 CEST)
One new cassane diterpene possessing an unusual N bridge between C-19 and C-20 named caesalsappanin R (1), as well as another new diterpene caesalsappanin S (2), were isolated from the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan with methanol extract. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis and examined alongside existing data from prior studies. Their biological activities were profiled by their antiplasmodial activity.