REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: prostate cancer, renal cancer, urothelial cancer, vaccines, immunotherapy
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:54:43 CEST)
Background: In the last years, many new treatment options have widened the therapeutic scenario of genitourinary malignancies. Immunotherapy has shown efficacy, especially in the urothelial and renal cell carcinomas, with no particular relevance in prostate cancer. However, despite the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors, there is still high morbidity and mortality among these neo-plasms. Cancer vaccines represent another way to activate the immune system. We sought to summarize the most recent advances in vaccine therapy for genitourinary malignancies with this review. Methods: We searched Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane Database for clinical trials conducted in the last ten years, focusing on cancer vaccines in the prostate, urothelial and renal cancer. Results: Various therapeutic vaccines, including DNA-based, RNA-based, peptide-based, dendritic cells, viral vectors, and modified tumor cells, have been demonstrated to induce specific immune responses in a variable percentage of patients. However, these responses rarely corresponded to significant survival improvements. Conclusions: Further pre-clinical and clinical studies will improve the knowledge about cancer vaccines in genitourinary malignancies to optimize dosage, select targets with a driver role for tumor development and growth, and finally overcome resistance mechanisms. Combination strategies represent possibly more effective and long-lasting treatments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: uveal melanoma; tumorigenesis; molecular classification; targeted therapy; immune checkpoint; tumor heterogeneity
Online: 1 October 2021 (11:54:23 CEST)
Uveal melanoma (UM) is characterized by relatively few, highly incident molecular alterations and their association with metastatic risk is deeply understood. Nevertheless, this knowledge has so far not led to innovate therapies for the successful treatment of UM metastases or for adjuvant therapy, leaving survival after diagnosis of metastatic UM almost unaltered in decades. The driver mutations of UM, mainly in the G-protein genes GNAQ and GNA11, activate the MAP-kinase pathway as well as the YAP/TAZ pathway. At present, there are no drugs that target the latter and this likely explains the failure of MEK-inhibitors. Immune checkpoint blockers, despite the game changing effect in cutaneous melanoma (CM) show only marginal effects in UM probably because of the low mutational burden of 0.5 per megabase and the unavailability of antibodies targeting the main immune checkpoint active in UM. The highly pro-tumorigenic microenvironment of UM also contributes to therapy resistance. However, T-cell redirection by a soluble T cell receptor that is fused to an anti-CD3 single-chain variable fragment, local, liver specific therapy, new immune checkpoint blockers and YAP/TAZ specific drugs give new hope to repeat the success of innovative therapy obtained for CM.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: bone metastasis; breast cancer; radiotherapy; diagnostic imaging; systemic therapies
Online: 20 August 2020 (04:25:31 CEST)
The standard care for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is systemic therapies with imbrication of focal treatment for symptoms. Recently, thanks to implementation of radiological and metabolic exams and development of new target therapies, oligometastatic and oligoprogressive settings are even more common, paving the way to a paradigm change of focal treatments role. In fact, according to immunophenotype, radiotherapy can be considered with radical intent in these settings of patients. The aim of this literature review is to analyse available clinical data on prognosis of bone metastases from breast cancer and benefits of available treatments for developing a practical guide for clinicians.