REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0010.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: fibronectin; fibrillogenesis; extracellular matrix; biomechanics; mechanobiology
Online: 2 August 2021 (09:45:17 CEST)
The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a key role as both structural scaffold and regulator of cell signal transduction in tissues. In times of ECM assembly and turnover, cells upregulate assembly of the ECM protein, fibronectin (FN). FN is assembled by cells into viscoelastic fibrils that can bind upward of 40 distinct growth factors and cytokines. These fibrils play a key role in assembling a provisional ECM during embryonic development and wound healing. Fibril assembly is also often upregulated during disease states, including cancer and fibrotic diseases. FN fibrils have unique mechanical properties, which allow them to alter mechanotransduction signals sensed and relayed by cells. Binding of soluble growth factors to FN fibrils alters signal transduction from these proteins, while binding of other ECM proteins, including collagens, elastins, and proteoglycans, to FN fibrils facilitates the maturation and tissue specificity of the ECM. In this review, we will discuss the assembly of FN fibrils from individual FN molecules; the composition, structure, and mechanics of FN fibrils; the interaction of FN fibrils with other ECM proteins and growth factors; the role of FN in transmitting mechanobiology signaling events; and approaches for studying the mechanics of FN fibrils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0544.v1
Online: 23 July 2021 (12:30:21 CEST)
Background. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) patch is commonly used during surgical closure for atrial septal defect (ASD) and/or ventricular septal defect (VSD). It has several limitations such as inability to grow, repair, and remodel. Aneurysm formation, thrombosis, and the inability of patches to grow or remodel are usual, especially in children and young adults. To tackle these limitations, we try to use fibronectin and human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) in PTFE patch. Objective. To understanding positive impact of fibronectin to enhance hAMSCs cell-to-cell adherence and cell-to-patch surface attachment into PTFE patch for future ASD or VSD closure. Methods. Cultured of hAMSCs cells were fixated with 15 mL methanol and CD90+, CD105+, CD45- antibodies were labeled FITC, rinsed with PBS and analyzed under fluorescence microscope for 15 minutes. Fibronectin solution 0.1% were used to soak patch scaffolds for approximately 2 hours duration, and then dried for 20 minutes for treatment group. As for control group, Fibronectin solution was not added on the culture. The samples were examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results. SEM examination showed incomplete attachment of the cells even after 10 days on control group at 1.14 ±1.13 (Figure 2). In contrast, treatment group showed more cells attached to the patch surface at 31.25 ±13.28 (p 0.000) (Figure 3). Observation at 5 days was 17.67 ± 20.21, at 7 days was 12.11 ± 10.94, at 10 days was 18.83 ± 23.25. No significant statistical difference of mean cell per view among each treatment group (p 0.802). Conclusion. Fibronectin has a positive impact on hAMSCs attachment seeded onto PTFE patch. These properties, in combination with their developmental plasticity, have generated tremendous interest because of the potential use of hAMSCs in regenerative medicine to replace damaged tissues.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0126.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Infective Endocarditis; Staphylococcus Aureus; Biofilm; Immune response; Fibronectin
Online: 7 July 2022 (10:00:18 CEST)
Infective endocarditis remains an illness that carries a significant burden to healthcare resources. In recent times, there has been a shift from Streptococcus sp to Staphylococcus sp as the primary organism of interest. This has significant consequences given the virulence of Staphylococcus and its propensity to form a biofilm, rendering non-surgical therapy ineffective. In addition, antibiotic resistance has affected treatment of this organism. The cohorts at most risk for Staphylococcal endocarditis are the elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. The innovation of transcatheter technologies alongside other cardiac interventions such as implantable devices have contributed to the increased risk attributable to this cohort. We examine the role of the heart team for diagnosis and treatment of this condition. In addition, we examine the determinants of virulence of Staphylococcus aureus, the interaction with hosts immunity and the discovery and emergence of a potential vaccine. We also examine the potential role of prophylactic antibiotics during dental procedures. With increasing rates of transcatheter device implantations, there is a projected increment of endocarditis especially in this high-risk group. A high index of suspicion is needed alongside early initiation of therapy and referral to the heart time to improve outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0206.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: adnectin; biosensor; Fibronectin; monobody; non-antibody scaffold; therapeutic
Online: 19 January 2020 (03:25:24 CET)
As a non-antibody scaffold, monobodies based on the fibronectin type III (FN3) domain overcome antibody size and complexity while maintaining analogous binding loops. However, antibodies and their derivatives remain the gold standard for design of new therapeutics. In response, clinical therapeutic proteins based on the FN3 domain are beginning to use native fibronectin function as a point of differentiation. The small and simple structure of monomeric monobodies confers increased tissue distribution and reduced half-life, whilst the absence of disulphide bonds improves stability in cytosolic environments. Where multi-specificity is challenging with an antibody format that is prone to mis-pairing of chains, FN3 domains in the fibronectin assembly already interact with a large number of molecules. As such, multiple monobodies engineered for interaction with therapeutic targets are being combined in a similar beads-on-a-string assembly which improves both efficacy and pharmacokinetics. Furthermore, full length fibronectin is able to fold into multiple conformations as part of its natural function and a greater understanding of how mechanical forces allow for the transition between states will lead to advanced applications that truly differentiate the FN3 domain as a therapeutic scaffold.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0288.v1
Online: 16 November 2021 (11:36:48 CET)
In dentistry, maxillofacial surgery, traumatology, and orthopedics, there is a need to use osteoplastic materials that have not only osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties but are also convenient for use. In the study, compositions based on collagen hydrogel were developed. Polylactide granules (PLA) or a traditional bone graft, a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate (HAP/β-TCP), were used for gel filling to improve mechanical osteoconductive properties of compositions. The mechanical tests showed that collagen hydrogels filled with 12 wt% highly porous PLA granules (elastic modulus 373 ± 55 kPa) or 35 wt% HAP/β-TCP granules (elastic modulus 451 ± 32 kPa) had optimal manipulative properties. All composite components were cytocompatible. The cell’s viability was above 90%, and the components’ structure facilitated the cell’s surface adhesion. The bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) provided osteoinductive composition properties. It was impregnated directly into the collagen hydrogel with the addition of fibronectin or inside porous PLA granules. The implantation of a collagen hydrogel with BMP-2 and PLA granules into a critical-size calvarial defect in rats led to the formation of the most significant volume of bone tissue: 61 ± 15%. It was almost 2.5 times more than in the groups where a collagen-fibronectin hydrogel with a mixture of HAP/β-TCP (25 ± 7%) or a fibronectin-free composition with porous PLA granules impregnated with BMP-2 (23 ± 8%) were used. Subcutaneous implantation of the compositions also showed their high biocompatibility and osteogenic potential in the absence of a bone environment. Thus, the collagen-fibronectin hydrogel with BMP-2 and PLA granules has optimal biocompatibility, osteogenic, and manipulative properties.
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: fibronectin; corneal fibroblasts; fibrin; 3-D matrices; collective cell migration
Online: 6 August 2020 (00:20:04 CEST)
We previously reported that corneal fibroblasts within 3D fibrin matrices secrete, bind, and organize fibronectin into tracks that facilitate cell spreading and migration. Other cells use these fibronectin tracks as conduits, which leads to the development of an interconnected cell/fibronectin network. In this study, we investigate how cell induced reorganization of fibrin correlates with fibronectin track formation in response to two growth factors present during wound healing: PDGF BB, which stimulates cell spreading and migration; and TGFβ1, which stimulates cellular contraction and myofibroblast transformation. Both PDGF BB and TGF stimulated global fibrin matrix contraction (P < 0.005), however cell and matrix patterning were different. We found that during PDGF BB induced cell spreading, fibronectin was organized simultaneously with the generation of tractional forces at the leading edge of pseudopodia. Over time this led to the formation of an interconnected network consisting of cells, fibronectin and compacted fibrin tracks. Following culture in TGFβ1, cells were less motile, produced significant local fibrin reorganization, and formed fewer cellular connections as compared to PDGF BB (P < 0.005). Although bands of compacted fibrin tracks developed in between neighboring cells, fibronectin labeling was not generally present along these tracks, and the correlation between fibrin and fibronectin labeling was significantly less than that observed in PDGF BB (P < 0.001). Taken together, our results show that cell-induced ECM reorganization can occur independently from fibronectin patterning. Nonetheless, both events seem to be coordinated, as corneal fibroblasts in PDGF BB secrete and organize fibronectin as they preferentially spread along compacted fibrin tracks between cells, producing an interconnected network in which cells, fibronectin and compacted fibrin tracks are highly correlated. This mechanism of patterning could contribute to the formation of organized cellular networks that have been observed following corneal injury and refractive surgery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0555.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Extracellular matrix; Tissues; Organs; Development; Tumor progression; Collagens; Fibronectin; Integrins; Metastasis; Matrix metalloproteases; Cell Adhesion; Signaling
Online: 30 January 2023 (11:16:38 CET)
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a ubiquitous member of the body and is key to the maintenance of tissues and organs integrity. Initially thought to be a by-stander in many cellular processes, the extracellular matrix has been shown to have diverse components that regulate and activate many cellular processes and ultimately influence cell phenotype. Importantly, the ECM composition, architecture, and stiffness/elasticity influence cellular phenotypes. Under normal conditions and during development, the synthesized ECM is constantly undergoing degradation and remodeling processes via the action of matrix proteases that maintain tissue homeostasis. In many pathological conditions including fibrosis and cancer, the ECM synthesis, remodeling, and degradation is dysregulated causing its integrity to be altered. Both physical and chemical cues from the ECM are sensed via receptors including integrins and play key roles in driving cellular proliferation and differentiation and in various disease progression such as cancers. Advances in ‘omics’ technologies have seen an increase in studies focussing on bi-directional cell-matrix interactions and here we highlight emerging knowledge on the role played by the ECM during normal development and in pathological conditions. This review summarizes current ECM-targeted-therapies that can modify tumor ECM to overcome drug resistance and better cancer treatment.