ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0680.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: imidacloprid; Nilaparvata lugens; PCR-DGGE; insecticide resistance; neonicotinoids
Online: 12 September 2023 (04:11:32 CEST)
Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid, has proven as efficacious against hemipterans including the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). Frequent use, however, has resulted in high levels of resistance to imidacloprid among brown planthopper populations. Endosymbionts of insects are important for host insect growth and development and seem to play a role in resistance to imidacloprid. In this study, polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to analyze the bacterial and yeast-like-symbiont communities of imidacloprid-resistant and imidacloprid-susceptible brown planthopper populations. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index and the evenness index indicated that there were no differences in the composition of the symbiotic communities of resistant and susceptible with a similarity coefficient of 0.53 for bacterial symbionts and 0.56 for yeast-like symbionts for the two planthopper populations. Sequence comparison analysis showed that the numbers of bacterial species in the imidacloprid-resistant versus the imidacloprid-susceptible populations were not significantly different. The bacterial species in the susceptible population were members of the Enterobacteriaceae and Moraxellaceae, while these in the resistant population were members of the Enterobacteriaceae, Oxalobacteriaceae, Rhodobacteriaceae, and Sphingomonadaceae. The imidacloprid-susceptible population had more yeast-like symbiont species than the resistant population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1597.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: maritime traffic safety; maritime accident; Bayesian network (BN); accident scenario analysis; Netica
Online: 22 June 2023 (10:58:50 CEST)
This paper presents a scenario evolution model for maritime accidents using Bayesian networks (BN) to predict the most likely causes of specific types of maritime incidents. The BN nodes encompass accident type, life loss contingency, accident severity, the quarter and time period of the accident, and the type and gross tonnage of the ships involved. We analyzed 5,660 global maritime accidents from 2005 to 2020. Using Netica software, we constructed a Tree Augmented Network (TAN) model, accounting for interdependencies among risk influencing factors. We validated the results through sensitivity analysis and historical accident records. Forward causal inference and reverse diagnostic inference were then performed on each node variable to investigate the accident development trend and evolution process under predetermined conditions. The findings indicate that the model can effectively predict the likelihood of various accident scenarios under specific conditions, as well as the extrapolation of accident consequences. Forward causal reasoning reveals that general cargo ships with a gross tonnage of 1-18,500 t are most likely to experience collision, grounding, and stranding accidents in the first quarter. Reverse diagnostic reasoning indicates that during early morning hours, container ships, general cargo ships, and chemical ships with a tonnage of 1-18,500 t are less likely to involve life loss in the event of collision accidents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0520.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: apoptosis; autophagy; bafilomycin A1; diffuse large B cell lymphoma
Online: 22 July 2021 (13:43:07 CEST)
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most frequent type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adulthood, remains challenging clinical issues. Despite enhanced remission rates can be achieved, there are one-third of patients who will not respond to current treatment or will relapse with resistant disease, necessitating ongoing efforts on effective treatment strategies and agents. The vacuole H+-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 is broadly used to block late stage of autophagy flux at high concentration. In this study, we show that, to our surprise, bafilomycin A1 effectively inhibited and killed DLBCL cells at nanomolar concentrations (5nM). Bafilomycin A1 targeted cell cycle regulators cyclin D1 and cyclin E2 to induce cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Meanwhile, it induced caspase-dependent apoptosis with concomitant cleaved caspase-3 and Parp. Furthermore, we found that bafilomycin A1 inhibited autophagy flux at both early and late stages of the autophagy flux through activating ERK and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, as well as by inhibiting the degradation of autolysosomes. We speculated that bafilomycin A1 as autophagy inhibitor might enhance the effect of DLBCL chemotherapeutic drug rituximab. Accordingly, our results provided evidence that the combination of bafilomycin A1 with rituximab enhanced the inhibition of DLBCL cells notably. Taken together, our data suggest that bafilomycin A1 may be a promising candidate drug in the therapy of diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0393.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: water-rich area; water rights transaction; trading need; Taihu Basin
Online: 16 November 2018 (09:24:58 CET)
To alleviate the contradiction between the increasing demand for water and the shortage of resources and to provide a favorable institutional environment for water rights trading, the Chinese government has strengthened the top-level design of water management system. However, the water-rich regions (southern regions of China) have good water resource endowment and a surplus of total water consumption indicators. Does this mean that there is no incentive and no need to conduct water rights trading in these regions? Through the investigation of water rights circulation cases in the Taihu Basin, a typical water-rich region of China, we established the existence of trading demand and some difficulties in conducting transactions. This paper argues that the needs of trading include alleviating the water gap in regional development, solving the water demand for large new projects, coordinating trans-jurisdiction water disputes. The plight of trading includes the lack of awareness, irregular process, excessive administrative intervention, and imperfect trading system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0138.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Danggui-Shaoyao-San, chronic restraint stress, learning and memory, anxiety/depression, structural plasticity
Online: 31 January 2017 (15:30:41 CET)
Background: Clinical trails have revealed that patients with depression generally accompanied with learning and memory impairment, which critically impact on individual’s health and development. Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS), a famous Chinese complex prescription, significantly overcame depression and relieved cognitive disorder based on previous research and publication. However, its effectsand potential mechanism against chronic restraint stress (CRS) remained unknown. Methods: CRS animal model was established and mice were divided to six groups while they were oral administrated with Danggui-Shaoyao-San at doses of 1.25, 2.5 and 5 g/kg for 14 days. Emotional and cognitive performances were detected by behavior tests, meanwhile neural plasticity and its molecular mechanism were examined by Dil staining, western blot and immunofluorescence. Results: DSS treatment dose-dependently improved locomotion ability in open filed test, overcame depression behavior in forced swimming test and elevated plus maze test, enhanced learning and memory ability in Morris water maze test. CRS decreased number of total spines and mushroom spines, while DSS treatment dose-dependently restored these by Dil staining. Expression of BDNF and GluR1 were significantly down-regulated in CRS group, which were significantly normalized by DSS. Conclusions: DSS treatment dose-dependently reversed CRS-induced cognitive impairments by inducing structural remodeling of neurons.