Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Bafilomycin A1 Induces Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis and Inhibits Autophagy Flux in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma

Version 1 : Received: 21 July 2021 / Approved: 22 July 2021 / Online: 22 July 2021 (13:43:07 CEST)

How to cite: Li, F.; Hu, Y.; Hu, Y.; Zhou, R.; Mao, Z. Bafilomycin A1 Induces Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis and Inhibits Autophagy Flux in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma. Preprints 2021, 2021070520 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202107.0520.v1). Li, F.; Hu, Y.; Hu, Y.; Zhou, R.; Mao, Z. Bafilomycin A1 Induces Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis and Inhibits Autophagy Flux in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma. Preprints 2021, 2021070520 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202107.0520.v1).

Abstract

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most frequent type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adulthood, remains challenging clinical issues. Despite enhanced remission rates can be achieved, there are one-third of patients who will not respond to current treatment or will relapse with resistant disease, necessitating ongoing efforts on effective treatment strategies and agents. The vacuole H+-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 is broadly used to block late stage of autophagy flux at high concentration. In this study, we show that, to our surprise, bafilomycin A1 effectively inhibited and killed DLBCL cells at nanomolar concentrations (5nM). Bafilomycin A1 targeted cell cycle regulators cyclin D1 and cyclin E2 to induce cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Meanwhile, it induced caspase-dependent apoptosis with concomitant cleaved caspase-3 and Parp. Furthermore, we found that bafilomycin A1 inhibited autophagy flux at both early and late stages of the autophagy flux through activating ERK and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, as well as by inhibiting the degradation of autolysosomes. We speculated that bafilomycin A1 as autophagy inhibitor might enhance the effect of DLBCL chemotherapeutic drug rituximab. Accordingly, our results provided evidence that the combination of bafilomycin A1 with rituximab enhanced the inhibition of DLBCL cells notably. Taken together, our data suggest that bafilomycin A1 may be a promising candidate drug in the therapy of diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

Keywords

apoptosis; autophagy; bafilomycin A1; diffuse large B cell lymphoma

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