ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1768.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: social and global inequities; access to health programs; cervical cancer screening program; HPV vaccination programs; knowledge, believes, acceptance of vaccines/ screening; participation in screening programs; incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer; pelvectomies
Online: 26 July 2023 (07:19:17 CEST)
(1) Introduction: Every two hours, a Romanian woman is diagnosed with cervical cancer  as the country ranks second in Europe in terms of mortality and incidence rate . This paper aims to identify the main reasons that have led to this situation, focusing on the measures taken by the Romanian Ministry of Health for the prevention of this type of cancer national - programs for cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination. (2) Materials and methods: We performed a study based on available secondary data from the National Statistics Institute, World Health Organization and Bucharest Institute of Oncology in order to assess the burden associated with cervical cancer and placing it in the context of known global and European incidence and mortality rates, thus evaluating the importance of this health issue in Romania. The second component of our study was a cross-sectional study, using a 14 questions questionnaire, applied to the women participating in the National Screening Program for Cervical Cancer, aimed to evaluate the women’s level of knowledge about screening and HPV vaccination and their access cervical cancer specific health-care services. (3) Results: The results of the research shows that a high percentage of women postpone the routine checks due to lack of time and financial resources and indicate that low level of knowledge about the disease and the specific preventive methods determines low participation screening and HPV vaccination programs implemented in Romania contributing to the country’s situation of cervical cancer. (4) Conclusions: The national programs have complicated procedures, are underfunded, and do not motivate enough health care workers. This combined with the lack of information adds up to an extremely low number of women screened and vaccinated. Our conclusion is that the Romanian Ministry of Health must take immediate action by conducting major awareness campaigns, implementing measures to make the programs functional and ensuring coherent funding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colo-rectal cancer; liver metastasis; simultaneous approach; surgical treatment; chemotherapy
Online: 9 November 2022 (15:36:13 CET)
Management of synchronous colorectal cancer with liver metastases (SCLM) is still on debate, regarding timing, indications and complications of the 3 strategies: classic approach (first tumor resection), simultaneous resection and reverse approach (liver first). A retrospective single-centre evaluation of synchronous approach was accomplished, focusing on surgical technique, indications and perioperative complications. Between 2017 and 2020, 31 SCLM patients benefited from synchronously colorectal and hepatic approach: segmental colectomies/rectal resections, simultaneously with liver metastasectomies (associated with radiofrequency ablation). Post-therapeutic imaging monitoring was performed from every 3 to 6 months. There were no perioperative complications related to the combination of the two procedures, low morbidity and zero postoperative mortality. The follow-up period was from 10 to 40 months: 13 patients had no evidence of recurrence, 10 patients had hepatic metastases in regression, 4 of them had signs of peritoneal carcinomatosis and 4 patients showed progression of liver disease; all patients were on chemotherapy. During follow-up 4 patients died. Experience shows that the simultaneous approach of recto-colic and hepatic resections in colo-rectal cancers is a safe procedure, with low morbidity, the limits being dictated by the size of the liver metastases. The results at long-distance must be drawn by further consistent trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: angiogenesis inhibitors; VEGF inhibitors; ovarian cancer; progression-free survival; overall sur-vival; toxicity; systematic review; meta-analysis; randomized controlled trials; FDA approval of cancer drugs
Online: 2 February 2023 (05:26:47 CET)
(1)Background: Among new anti-angiogenetic agents being developed and everchanging guidelines indications, the question of benefits/safety ratio remains unclear. (2)Methods: we have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 25 randomized controlled trials (15487 patients), evaluating overall survival – OS, progression free survival– PFS and toxicity (grade ≥3 adverse effects, type and number of all adverse effects. (3)Results: analysis showed improvement of pooled-PFS (HR 0.72, 95%CI 0.66–0.78, I2 = 77%, P<0.00001) regardless of treatment settings (first-line - HR 0.83, 95%CI 0.77-0.90, P<0.00001, recurrent cancer – HR 0.61, 95%CI 0.54-0.68, P<0.00001 or maintenance – HR 0.82, 95%CI 0.67-1.00, P=0.04) and type of anti-angiogenetic drug used (VEGF inhibitors, VEGF-R inhibitors or angiopoietin inhibitors). Improved OS was also observed (HR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91–0.99, P=0.02). OS benefits were only observed in recurrent platinum-sensitive or platinum-resistant cancers. Grade≥3 adverse effects were increased across all trials. Anti-angiogenetic therapy increased the risk of hypertension, infection, thromboembolic/ hemorrhagic events, gastro-intestinal perforations but not the risk of wound related issues, anemia or posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. (4)Conclusions: Although angiogenesis inhibitors improve PFS, there is little to no OS benefits. Given the high risk of severe adverse reactions a careful selection of patients is required for obtaining the best results possible.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1866.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: breast reconstruction; reconstruction following mastectomy; prophylactic mastectomy; chest feminization; transgender; implant reconstruction of breast; immediate reconstruction; delayed reconstruction; two-stage breast reconstruction; autologous breast reconstruction
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:19:28 CEST)
(1) Importance of problem: Breast cancer accounted for 685.000 deaths globally in 2020, and half of all cases occur in women with no specific risk factor beside gender and age-group. During last 4 decades we see a reduction by 40% of age-standardized breast cancer , which in turn means that the number of mastectomies performed for younger women increased, raising the need for adequate breast reconstructive surgery. Advances in oncological treatment have made it possible to limit the extent of what represents radical surgery for breast cancer, yet in the past decade, we see a marked trend toward mastectomy in breast conserving surgery eligible patients . Prophylactic mastectomy has also registered an upward trend [3,4]. This trend together with new indication for breast reconstruction like chest feminization in transgender patients  have increased the need for breast reconstruction surgery. (2) Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze the types of reconstructive procedures, their indications, their limitations, their functional results and the safety profiles when used during the integrated treatment plan of the oncologic patient; (3) Methods: We conducted an extensive literature review of the main reconstructive techniques, especially the autologous procedures, summarized the findings and presented a few cases from our own experience for exemplification of the usage of breast reconstruction in oncologic patients. (4) Conclusions: Breast reconstruction has become a necessary step in the treatment of most breast cancers and many reconstructive techniques are now routinely practiced. Microsurgical techniques are considered the "gold standard", but they are not accessible to all services, from a technical or financial point of view, so pediculated flaps remain the safe and reliable option, along with alloplastic procedures, to improve the quality of life of these patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0383.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: colorectal; fluorescence; ICG; ICG-NIR; colorectal surgery; intraoperative staining; q-ICG
Online: 24 April 2023 (03:23:17 CEST)
Background: This literature review investigates qualitative and quantitative uses of indocyanine green (ICG) in surgical treatment, as this novel technique has become increasingly popular in ORs (operating rooms) worldwide due to its many advantages. Method: An extensive literature review was performed by searching for relevant terms in 5 international databases (www.pubmed.gov, www.sciencedirect.com, www.scopus.com, www.Oxfordjournals.com, www.reaxys.com). The results of this search were summarized into the main advantages of employing ICG in colorectal surgery as follows: a) intraoperative fluorescence angiography capability; b) fluorescence-guided identification of lymph node involvement in colorectal cancer and the sentinel lymph node method; c) positive fluorescence flagging of a liver tumour as small as "only" 200 tumour cells; d) facilitation of fistula diagnosis; and e) tumour tattooing. Moreover, in addition to qualitative intraoperative ICG use, this technique can be combined with quantitative methods and parameters, such as maximum intensity, relative maximum intensity, and different inflow parameters (time-to-peak, slope, and t1/2max). The conclusion of this article is that fluorescence surgery with ICG aided by near-infrared (NIR) light is a relatively recent technology, an advantage of which is improving the specific anatomic and functional information provided, thus allowing more comprehensive and safer tumour removal as well as preservation of important structures.