ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0125.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Cherry; trade intensity analysis method; concentration coefficient; Turkey
Online: 13 April 2022 (10:23:16 CEST)
Trade of agricultural products has gained importance with the development of global trade. Cherries has a crucial place in Turkish agricultural exports. Fresh cherries are in the scope of this study. The aim of this study is to examine Turkey’s position and competitiveness in cherry trade. Trade Intensity Analysis Method which represents the course of trade flow among countries is used in the study. The study indicates that European countries which are Turkey’s tradition trade partner has a biggest trade share with Turkey and that share did not much change in years. By the way, Asia market especially China, became a game changer in cherry trade and Turkey should prepare itself for this situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0308.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging; cherry tomato; maturity change; internal structure
Online: 14 July 2020 (11:52:59 CEST)
The maturity of tomato fruit is normally characterized by external color and it is often difficult to know when fruit have achieved commercial maturity or become over-mature. The internal structure of tomato fruit change during development and this study investigates the utility of nondestructive measurement of tomato fruit structure as a function of maturity using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The objective of this work is to use analysis of internal tomato fruit structural measurements to characterize maturity. Intact cherry tomato fruit were harvested at six different maturity stages. At each stage of maturity, the internal structure of the fruit was measured using a series of 2D magnetic resonance (MR) images. Qualitative and quantitative image analyses were performed to correlate internal fruit structure with maturity. Internal structural changes observed in the pericarp region of the tomato fruit are highly correlated with fruit maturity. MR image information combined with classical analysis techniques provides a more complete understanding of structure and physicochemical changes in tomato fruit during maturation. This study demonstrates that MRI is a useful analytical tool to characterize internal changes in agricultural produce as the produce matures. This technique can be applied to almost any agricultural produce to monitor internal physical changes due to external impact, maturity stage, variation in climate, storage time and condition or other factor impacting quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0303.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: acacia; anthocyanins; cherry; color; model wine; oak; wood extracts
Online: 27 May 2019 (09:36:10 CEST)
There is a restricted knowledge about the potential impact of the use of different wood species on color and anthocyanin changes during the red wine aging process. This lack of knowledge is even greater when no oak wood species are used. Thus, the aim of this study was to carry out a comparative analysis of the impact of wood chip extracts from oak, acacia and cherry species on the chromatic characteristics and anthocyanins changes by the use of model wine solutions. In this context, several methodologies were used to quantified, color and anthocyanins changes during the aging time studied. The results indicated that the contact between wood chip extracts and grape skin isolated anthocyanin extracts induced a decrease of color intensity, particularly red color, and also the anthocyanin content in the different experimental model wine solutions studied. All chromatic modifications are potentially detected by human eyes because ΔE values were much higher than 3 CIELab units. These tendencies seems to be independent of the wood species used, but more pronounced for higher contact time between wood chip extracts and anthocyanins. The obtained results may contribute to a better understanding of the chromatic changes of red wines when aged in contact with different wood chips species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0631.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: pressurized liquid extraction; enzyme-assisted extraction; non-extractable polyphenols; proanthocyanidins; sweet cherry pomace
Online: 28 July 2021 (12:23:41 CEST)
Sweet cherry pomace is a by-product that can be a source of bioactive phenolic compounds. Usually, polyphenols have been extracted using conventional extraction methodologies. However, a significant fraction, called non-extractable polyphenols (NEPs), remains retained in the conventional extraction residues. Therefore, this work is aimed, for the first time, to investigate the release of NEPs from cherry pomace combining pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) using Promod enzyme. A response surface methodology was employed to study the influence of temperature, time, and pH on the NEPs extraction. The response variables were the total phenolic content (TPC) measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method, total proanthocyanidin (PA) content evaluated by vanillin, DMAC, and butanol/HCl assays, and total antioxidant capacity determined by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and inhibition of hydroxyl radical assays. The results indicated that PLE-EAE was more suitable and selective to obtain NEPs from sweet cherry pomace than PLE alone. In fact, the extracts obtained by PLE-EAE displayed higher TPC, PA content, and bioactivity than the extracts obtained by PLE under the same extraction conditions, and those obtained by conventional methods. Moreover, size-exclusion chromatography profiles showed that the combination of PLE and EAE enabled the recovery of NEPs with higher molecular weight than PLE without EAE treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0414.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Sweet cherry; Anthocyanins; Non-coloured phenolics; Antioxidant activity; Erythrocytes protection; Caco-2 cells.
Online: 20 September 2018 (14:23:18 CEST)
This study aimed to compare three different extracts of Saco sweet cherry, namely non-coloured fraction, coloured fraction and total extract concerning phenolic composition, antioxidant and antidiabetic potential, erythrocytes’ protection and effects on Caco-2 cells. A total of 22 phenolic compounds were identified by LC-DAD. Hydroxycinnamic acids were the most predominant in both non-coloured fraction and total extract, while cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside was the main anthocyanin found in the coloured fraction. The total extract was the most effective against DPPH, nitric oxide and superoxide radicals, and in the inhibition of α-glucosidase enzyme. Finally, the protective effect of the extracts to prevent oxidative damage in human erythrocytes was assessed. The coloured fraction revealed the best activity against hemoglobin oxidation and hemolysis. Regarding to Caco-2 cells, the coloured extract exhibited the most cytotoxic effects, while the total extract was the most efficient in protecting these cells against oxidative damage induced by t-BHP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0018.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: non-acylated anthocyanins; anthocyanins with aromatic acylation; SAR; mahaleb cherry; blackcurrant; black carrot; ‘Sun Black’ tomato; VCAM-1; ICAM-1; endothelial adhesion molecules
Online: 4 December 2017 (07:04:17 CET)
Anthocyanins, the naturally occurring pigments responsible for most red to blue colours of flowers, fruits and vegetables, have also attracted interests because of their potential health effects. With the aim of contributing to major insights into their structure-activity relationship (SAR), we have evaluated the radical scavenging and biological activities of selected purified anthocyanin samples (PASs) from various anthocyanin-rich plant materials: two fruits (mahaleb cherry and blackcurrant) and two vegetables (black carrot and ‘Sun Black’ tomato). PASs from the above-mentioned plant material have been evaluated for their antioxidant capacity, using TEAC and ORAC assays. In human endothelial cells, we analysed the biological activity of different PASs by measuring their effects on the expression of endothelial inflammatory markers, including endothelial adhesion molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. We demonstrated that all the different PASs showed biological activity. They exhibited antioxidant capacity of different magnitude, higher for samples containing non-acylated anthocyanins (typical for fruits) compared to samples containing more complex anthocyanins acylated with cinnamic acid derivatives (typical for vegetables), even though this order was slightly reversed when ORAC assay values were expressed on molar basis. Concordantly, PASs containing non-acylated anthocyanins reduced the expression of endothelial inflammatory antigens more than samples with aromatic acylated anthocyanins, suggesting the potential beneficial effect of structurally diverse anthocyanins in cardiovascular protection.