REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0155.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Cognitive Graph; Knowledge Graph; Knowledge Reasoning; Natural Language Generating
Online: 6 August 2021 (10:14:00 CEST)
The realization of the third-generation artificial intelligence (AI) requires the evolution from perceptual intelligence to cognitive intelligence, where knowledge graphs may not meet the practical needs anymore. Based on the dual channel theory, cognitive graphs are established and developed through coordinating the implicit extraction module and the explicit reasoning module as well as integrating knowledge graphs, cognitive reasoning and logical expressions, which have achieved successes in multi-hop question answering. It is desired for cognitive graphs to be widely used in advanced AI applications such as large-scale knowledge representations and intelligent responses, promoting the development of Al dramatically. This review discusses cognitive graphs systematically and elaborately, including basic concepts, generations, theories and technologies. Moreover, we try to predict the development of cognitive intelligence in the short-term future and further enlighten more researches and studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0405.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: mangosteen; phenolic components; HPLC; quantification; fingerprint
Online: 26 January 2022 (18:46:41 CET)
The extracts of Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen) are traditionally used for medicinal purposes in Asia. Phenols and xanthones are the two main phenolic compounds with anti-inflammatory activities in the pericarps of mangosteen. A simple and economic reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of phenols (catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2) in mangosteen. The mobile phase was acetonitrile: water (12:88) at 30°C, the flow rate was 1 mL/min, and the detection wavelength was 230 nm. The results showed good linear relationships for catechin from 50-250 ng and for epicatechin and procyanidin B2 from 250-1250 ng. The RP-HPLC fingerprint determination method of total xanthones in mangosteen was also established to provide a new method for quality control of mangosteen extract. The mobile phase was a methanol-water gradient elution at 30°C, the flow rate was 1 mL/min, and the detection wavelength was 320 nm. The similarity of fingerprints of 10 batches of total xanthones was more than 0.90. These methods had good precision, reproducibility, and stability and can be applied in the quality control of mangosteen extracts for medicinal purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2023.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Steel slag; Direct aqueous carbonation; CO2 sequestration; Parameter optimization; Mechanism analysis
Online: 31 October 2023 (09:06:09 CET)
The carbonation of industrial calcium-rich byproducts such as steel slag demonstrates significant potential for CO2 sequestration. This technique aids in reducing carbon emissions while also promoting waste recycling. Despite its advantages, gaps remain in understanding how steel slag characteristics and operational parameters influence the carbonation process, as well as the underlying mechanism of direct aqueous carbonation. We evaluated the carbonation performance of three types of steel slag at temperatures below 100°C using a gas–liquid–solid reaction system. The slag with the highest CO2 sequestration capacity was chosen for a systematic evaluation of the effects of operating conditions on carbonation efficiency. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that the reactivity of CaO and Ca(OH)2 with CO2 exceeded that of CaO•SiO2 and 2CaO•SiO2. Under conditions of 85°C, a particle size less than 75 μm, an initial CO2 pressure of 0.5 MPa, a liquid-to-solid ratio of 5 mL/g, and a stirring speed of 200 rpm, the steel slag achieved a sequestration capacity (K) of 283.5 gCO2/kg and a carbonation efficiency (ζCa) of 51.61%. Characterization of the slag before and after carbonation using X-ray diffraction, SEM‒EDS, thermogravimetric analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry confirmed the formation of new carbonates. Mechanistic analysis revealed that the rate-limiting step initially involved the mass transfer of CO2, transitioning to Ca2+ mass transfer as time progressed. Our research provides a viable technique for CO2 capture and a beneficial approach for reutilizing waste steel slag. Furthermore, solid residues after capturing CO2 have the potential for conversion into carbon-negative building materials, offering a sustainable strategy for steel companies and other enterprises with high carbon emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1403.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: semisolid; gene mapping; Aegilops tauschii; synthetic hexaploid wheat; lodging resistance
Online: 20 July 2023 (09:36:04 CEST)
Lodging is one of the important factors affecting the high and stable yield of wheat worldwide. Solid-stemmed wheat has higher stem strength and lodging resistance than hollow-stemmed wheat. There are many solid stemmed varieties, landraces and old varieties of durum wheat. However, the transfer of solid stem genes from durum wheat is suppressed by the suppressor gene located on chromosome 3D in common wheat, and only hollow-stemmed lines have been created. However, synthetic hexaploid wheat can serve as a bridge to transfer solid stem genes from tetraploid wheat to common wheat. In this study, the F1, F2, and F2:3 generations of the cross between solid-stemmed Syn-SAU-119 and semisolid-stemmed Syn-SAU-117 were developed. A single dominant gene, tentatively designated Su-TdDof, was identified in synthetic hexaploid wheat Syn-SAU-117 by genetic analysis, which suppresses stem solidity. Using bulked segregant RNA-seq (BSR-seq) analysis, Su-TdDof was mapped to chromosome 7DS and flanked by markers KASP-669 and KASP-1055 within a 4.53 cM genetic interval corresponding to 3.86 Mb and 2.29Mb physical region in the Chinese Spring (IWGSC RefSeq v1.1) and Ae. tauschii (AL8/78 v4.0) genome, respectively, in which three genes related to solid stem development were annotated. Su-TdDof differed from a previously reported solid stem suppressor gene based on its origin and position. Su-TdDof would provide a valuable example for research on the suppression phenomenon. The flanking markers developed in this study would be useful for screening Ae. tauschii accessions with no suppressor gene (Su-TdDof) to develop more synthetic hexaploid wheat lines for wheat lodging resistance breeding and further cloning the suppressor gene Su-TdDof.