Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: ADAS simulation; scenario generation; automated driving; Testing; innovation in mobility; self-driving cars; transportation
Online: 7 December 2020 (11:24:16 CET)
The increasingly used approach of combining different simulation software in testing of automated driving systems (ADS) increases the need for potential and convenient software designs. Recently developed co-simulation platforms (CSP) provide the possibility to cover the high demand on testing kilometers for ADS by combining vehicle simulation software (VSS) with traffic flow simulation software (TFSS) environments. The emphasis on the demand of testing kilometers is not enough to choose a suitable CSP. The complexity level of the used vehicle, object, sensors and environment models is essential for valid and representative simulation results. Choosing a suitable CSP raises the question of how the test procedures should be defined and constructed and what the relevant test scenarios are. Parameters of the ADS, the environments, objects, sensors in VSS as well as traffic parameters in TFSS can be used to define and generate test scenarios. In order to generate a large number of scenarios in a systematic and automated way, suitable and appropriate software designs are required. In this paper we present a software design for CSP based on the Model-View-Controller (MVC) design pattern and implementation of a complex CSP for virtual testing of ADS. Based on this design, an implementation of a CSP is presented using the VSS from IPG Automotive called CarMaker and the TFSS from PTV Group called Vissim. The results have shown that the presented CSP design and the implementation of the co-simulation can be used to generate relevant scenarios for testing of ADS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0230.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Convolutional neural network; Driver drowsiness; ECG signal; Heart rate variability; Wavelet scalogram
Online: 12 November 2021 (15:01:50 CET)
Driver drowsiness is one of the leading causes of traffic accidents. This paper proposes a new method for classifying driver drowsiness using deep convolution neural networks trained by wavelet scalogram images of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Three different classes were de-fined for drowsiness based on video observation of driving tests performed in a simulator for manual and automated modes. The Bayesian optimization method is employed to optimize the hyperparameters of the designed neural networks, such as the learning rate and the number of neurons in every layer. To assess the results of the deep network method, Heart Rate Variability (HRV) data is derived from the ECG signals, some features are extracted from this data, and finally, random forest and k-nearest neighbors (KNN) classifiers are used as two traditional methods to classify the drowsiness levels. Results show that the trained deep network achieves balanced accuracies of about 77% and 79% in the manual and automated modes, respectively. However, the best obtained balanced accuracies using traditional methods are about 62% and 64%. We conclude that designed deep networks working with wavelet scalogram images of ECG signals significantly outperform KNN and random forest classifiers which are trained on HRV-based features.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: vehicle detection; automated driving; autonomous vehicles; measurement campaign; 5G; vehicle sensors; infrastructure sensors; UHD map
Online: 15 March 2021 (16:46:28 CET)
The paper presents the measurement campaign carried out on a real-world motorway stretch of Hungary with the participation of both industrial and academic partners from Austria and Hungary. The measurement included vehicle based as well as infrastructure based sensor data. The obtained results will be extremely useful for future automotive R&D activities due to the available ground truth for static and dynamic content. The aim of the measurement campaign was twofold. On the one hand, road geometry was mapped with high precision in order to build Ultra High Definition (UHD) map of the test road. On the other hand, the vehicles - equipped with differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) for ground truth localization - carried out special test scenarios while collecting detailed data using different sensors. All test runs were recorded by both vehicles and infrastructure. As a complementary task, the available 5G network was monitored and tested. The paper also showcases application examples based on the measurement campaign data, in which the added value of having access to the ground truth labeling and the created UHD map of the motorway section becomes apparent. In order to present our work transparently, a part of the measured data have been shared openly such that interested automotive as well as academic parties may use it for their own purposes.