Preprint Article Version 9 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Gravitational Fields and Gravitational Waves

Version 1 : Received: 20 September 2021 / Approved: 22 September 2021 / Online: 22 September 2021 (11:45:29 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 13 October 2021 / Approved: 14 October 2021 / Online: 14 October 2021 (15:33:15 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 14 November 2021 / Approved: 15 November 2021 / Online: 15 November 2021 (13:55:36 CET)
Version 4 : Received: 3 December 2021 / Approved: 3 December 2021 / Online: 3 December 2021 (10:12:32 CET)
Version 5 : Received: 7 December 2021 / Approved: 9 December 2021 / Online: 9 December 2021 (10:41:35 CET)
Version 6 : Received: 14 December 2021 / Approved: 14 December 2021 / Online: 14 December 2021 (10:39:00 CET)
Version 7 : Received: 30 December 2021 / Approved: 30 December 2021 / Online: 30 December 2021 (11:58:29 CET)
Version 8 : Received: 31 December 2021 / Approved: 31 December 2021 / Online: 31 December 2021 (11:09:16 CET)
Version 9 : Received: 3 January 2022 / Approved: 4 January 2022 / Online: 4 January 2022 (11:10:13 CET)

How to cite: Yuan, T. Gravitational Fields and Gravitational Waves. Preprints 2021, 2021090379. Yuan, T. Gravitational Fields and Gravitational Waves. Preprints 2021, 2021090379.


The relative velocity between objects with finite velocity affects the reaction between them. This effect is known as general Doppler effect. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) discovered gravitational waves and found their speed to be equal to the speed of light c. Gravitational waves are generated following a disturbance in the gravitational field; they affect the gravitational force on an object. Just as light waves are subject to the Doppler effect, so are gravitational waves. This article explores the following research questions concerning gravitational waves: What is the spatial distribution of gravitational waves? Can the speed of a gravitational wave represent the speed of the gravitational field (the speed of the action of the gravitational field upon the object)? What is the speed of the gravitational field? Do gravitational waves caused by the revolution of the Sun affect planetary precession? Can we modify Newton’s gravitational equation through the influence of gravitational waves?


law of gravitation; Doppler effect; gravitational wave; gravitational field; LIGO; gravitational constant; precession of the planets


Physical Sciences, Astronomy and Astrophysics

Comments (2)

Comment 1
Received: 4 January 2022
Commenter: Tony Yuan
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Einstein thought Gravitation is bending of space-time. everything moving with constant speed either it be light or anything else always follows geodesic. Then I want to ask a question: If the light is aimed at the center of the planet, what is the geodesic at this time? Will the light be bent? If our Earth also bends the surrounding space-time, then looking at the 2D space-time bending model, as shown in Figure 17(a), the light will never have a chance to reach the earth, and the light will only travel along the bent space-time, from the edge of the earth, go through. Obviously this 2D space-time bending model is incorrect, so will the 3D space-time bending model be correct? As shown in Figure 17(b), it can be seen that the surrounding space is recessed toward the center. The more severe the bending, the greater the impact of mass on space-time. It seems that the 3D model is closer to the truth. But if we express the magnitude of Newtonian gravitation at different positions in space as the distance from the source of gravity, then the final 3D model of Newtonian gravitation is almost the same as the 3D model of GR's space-time bending. It seems that Newton can also claim that universal gravitation bends space-time, but the fact is that it is only a mathematical model that uses distance to express the magnitude of gravitation. In this mathematical model, there are only coordinates of the direction and the magnitude of gravity, and no space coordinates (x, y, z), space-time have never been bent. But Einstein obviously confuses these concepts. Not only does he use the degree of bending to express the magnitude of gravity, but also continues to retain the spatial coordinates (x, y, z). GR is a wrong theory of gravity, which doomed the Einstein-Infield-Hoffman equation to be wrong.

From our analysis, GR is a wrong theory of gravity. The Newtonian model of universal gravitation under the action of gravitational waves is the correct way for humans to study the universe.
+ Respond to this comment
Comment 2
Received: 6 January 2022
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: When a lie is penetrated, countless institutions, SCI journals, scholars, professors, and universities that benefit from this lie will be unacceptable.
+ Respond to this comment

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our Diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
* All users must log in before leaving a comment
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 2
Metrics 0

Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.
We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience.
Read more about our cookies here.