Preprint Article Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Gravitational Fields and Gravitational Waves

Version 1 : Received: 20 September 2021 / Approved: 22 September 2021 / Online: 22 September 2021 (11:45:29 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 13 October 2021 / Approved: 14 October 2021 / Online: 14 October 2021 (15:33:15 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 14 November 2021 / Approved: 15 November 2021 / Online: 15 November 2021 (13:55:36 CET)
Version 4 : Received: 3 December 2021 / Approved: 3 December 2021 / Online: 3 December 2021 (10:12:32 CET)
Version 5 : Received: 7 December 2021 / Approved: 9 December 2021 / Online: 9 December 2021 (10:41:35 CET)
Version 6 : Received: 14 December 2021 / Approved: 14 December 2021 / Online: 14 December 2021 (10:39:00 CET)
Version 7 : Received: 30 December 2021 / Approved: 30 December 2021 / Online: 30 December 2021 (11:58:29 CET)
Version 8 : Received: 31 December 2021 / Approved: 31 December 2021 / Online: 31 December 2021 (11:09:16 CET)
Version 9 : Received: 3 January 2022 / Approved: 4 January 2022 / Online: 4 January 2022 (11:10:13 CET)

How to cite: Yuan, T. Gravitational Fields and Gravitational Waves. Preprints 2021, 2021090379. Yuan, T. Gravitational Fields and Gravitational Waves. Preprints 2021, 2021090379.


The relative velocity between objects with finite velocity affects the reaction between them. This effect is known as general Doppler effect. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) discovered gravitational waves and found their speed to be equal to the speed of light c. Gravitational waves are generated following a disturbance in the gravitational field; they affect the gravitational force on an object. Just as light waves are subject to the Doppler effect, so are gravitational waves. This article explores the following research questions concerning gravitational waves: What is the spatial distribution of gravitational waves? Can the speed of a gravitational wave represent the speed of the gravitational field (the speed of the action of the gravitational field upon the object)? What is the speed of the gravitational field? Do gravitational waves caused by the revolution of the Sun affect planetary precession? Can we modify Newton’s gravitational equation through the influence of gravitational waves?


law of gravitation; Doppler effect; gravitational wave; gravitational field; LIGO; gravitational constant; precession of the planets


Physical Sciences, Astronomy and Astrophysics

Comments (4)

Comment 1
Received: 14 October 2021
Commenter: Tony Yuan
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: I used my gravitational theory to calculate the orbital data of the planets of the sun, and the "5 Analysis of the Influence of Gravitational Waves on Planetary Orbits" in the paper made a detailed supplement. I think data is the best way to show whether a theory is correct. Unfortunately, GR did not provide N-body data. If any scholar can provide it, I would be very grateful.
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Response 1 to Comment 1
Received: 17 October 2021
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: The data in thepaper are calculated under the 2D model, and more accurate data under the3D model will be updated in the future.
Comment 2
Received: 13 November 2021
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: Below is part of the data I calculated, the position (x, y, z) and speed (vx, vy, vz) of the sun every day.
1 X =-1.258731E+006 Y =5.583448E+005 Z =2.485312E+004
1 VX= -6.758924E-003 VY= -1.435848E-002 VZ= 2.728714E-004
2 X =-1.259314E+006 Y =5.571039E+005 Z =2.487667E+004
2 VX= -6.737468E-003 VY= -1.436591E-002 VZ= 2.723916E-004
3 X =-1.259895E+006 Y =5.558624E+005 Z =2.490019E+004
3 VX= -6.716022E-003 VY= -1.437325E-002 VZ= 2.719102E-004
4 X =-1.260474E+006 Y =5.546202E+005 Z =2.492366E+004
4 VX= -6.694590E-003 VY= -1.438049E-002 VZ= 2.714275E-004
5 X =-1.261052E+006 Y =5.533774E+005 Z =2.494709E+004
5 VX= -6.673175E-003 VY= -1.438765E-002 VZ= 2.709438E-004
6 X =-1.261627E+006 Y =5.521340E+005 Z =2.497048E+004
6 VX= -6.651777E-003 VY= -1.439472E-002 VZ= 2.704593E-004
7 X =-1.262201E+006 Y =5.508900E+005 Z =2.499382E+004
7 VX= -6.630400E-003 VY= -1.440170E-002 VZ= 2.699742E-004
8 X =-1.262773E+006 Y =5.496454E+005 Z =2.501713E+004
8 VX= -6.609046E-003 VY= -1.440860E-002 VZ= 2.694887E-004
9 X =-1.263343E+006 Y =5.484002E+005 Z =2.504039E+004
9 VX= -6.587717E-003 VY= -1.441540E-002 VZ= 2.690029E-004
10 X =-1.263911E+006 Y =5.471544E+005 Z =2.506361E+004
10 VX= -6.566415E-003 VY= -1.442212E-002 VZ= 2.685170E-004
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Comment 3
Received: 14 November 2021
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: There is no space-time curvature, it is just the spatial density distribution of gravitational waves. Newtonian gravity plus the influence of gravitational waves can perfectly calculate the orbit of each planet. Hope that space-time curvature, time flows backwards, and time slows down. Hope those interesting physical concept only exists in Hollywood.
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