Preprint Article Version 5 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Gravitational Fields and Gravitational Waves

Version 1 : Received: 20 September 2021 / Approved: 22 September 2021 / Online: 22 September 2021 (11:45:29 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 13 October 2021 / Approved: 14 October 2021 / Online: 14 October 2021 (15:33:15 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 14 November 2021 / Approved: 15 November 2021 / Online: 15 November 2021 (13:55:36 CET)
Version 4 : Received: 3 December 2021 / Approved: 3 December 2021 / Online: 3 December 2021 (10:12:32 CET)
Version 5 : Received: 7 December 2021 / Approved: 9 December 2021 / Online: 9 December 2021 (10:41:35 CET)
Version 6 : Received: 14 December 2021 / Approved: 14 December 2021 / Online: 14 December 2021 (10:39:00 CET)
Version 7 : Received: 30 December 2021 / Approved: 30 December 2021 / Online: 30 December 2021 (11:58:29 CET)
Version 8 : Received: 31 December 2021 / Approved: 31 December 2021 / Online: 31 December 2021 (11:09:16 CET)
Version 9 : Received: 3 January 2022 / Approved: 4 January 2022 / Online: 4 January 2022 (11:10:13 CET)

How to cite: Yuan, T. Gravitational Fields and Gravitational Waves. Preprints 2021, 2021090379. Yuan, T. Gravitational Fields and Gravitational Waves. Preprints 2021, 2021090379.


The relative velocity between objects with finite velocity affects the reaction between them. This effect is known as general Doppler effect. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) discovered gravitational waves and found their speed to be equal to the speed of light c. Gravitational waves are generated following a disturbance in the gravitational field; they affect the gravitational force on an object. Just as light waves are subject to the Doppler effect, so are gravitational waves. This article explores the following research questions concerning gravitational waves: What is the spatial distribution of gravitational waves? Can the speed of a gravitational wave represent the speed of the gravitational field (the speed of the action of the gravitational field upon the object)? What is the speed of the gravitational field? Do gravitational waves caused by the revolution of the Sun affect planetary precession? Can we modify Newton’s gravitational equation through the influence of gravitational waves?


law of gravitation; Doppler effect; gravitational wave; gravitational field; LIGO; gravitational constant; precession of the planets


Physical Sciences, Astronomy and Astrophysics

Comments (2)

Comment 1
Received: 9 December 2021
Commenter: Tony Yuan
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: My paper has been unable to be published because it is a challenge to GR. I also tried to get close to the idea of GR, but this will make the solar system no longer stable. So I give up the changes made for publication. I need to update the paper once.
Maybe it will be rejected again because my paper challenged GR, but I still want to stick to the truth and don't want to compromise to publish the paper.
+ Respond to this comment
Comment 2
Received: 13 December 2021
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: I added the gravitational speed parameter to the program. I can set the gravitational speed arbitrarily, such as equal to c, equal to 0.1c, equal to 100c, and so on. When the gravitational speed is equal to c, we can clearly observe that the orbits of the planets and the sun will no longer be stable.
Summarize: The lower the gravitational speed, the more unstable the solar system will be. The theoretical basis of GR is that the speed of gravity is equal to the speed of light, which is wrong. In fact, the introduction of gravitational velocity into the binary star system makes it easy to observe that the binary star system is no longer stable. No matter how GR bends time and space, it cannot achieve stability.
+ Respond to this comment

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our Diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
* All users must log in before leaving a comment
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 2
Metrics 0

Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.
We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience.
Read more about our cookies here.