Preprint Article Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

On the Fundamental Particles and Reactions of Nature

Version 1 : Received: 23 December 2020 / Approved: 28 December 2020 / Online: 28 December 2020 (13:15:23 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 20 December 2021 / Approved: 23 December 2021 / Online: 23 December 2021 (15:15:13 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 5 April 2022 / Approved: 7 April 2022 / Online: 7 April 2022 (11:05:53 CEST)
Version 4 : Received: 31 October 2022 / Approved: 4 November 2022 / Online: 4 November 2022 (01:03:50 CET)
Version 5 : Received: 31 December 2022 / Approved: 4 January 2023 / Online: 4 January 2023 (02:26:55 CET)

How to cite: Bao, J.; Bao, N.P. On the Fundamental Particles and Reactions of Nature. Preprints 2020, 2020120703. Bao, J.; Bao, N.P. On the Fundamental Particles and Reactions of Nature. Preprints 2020, 2020120703.


There are unsolved problems related to inflation, gravity, dark matter, dark energy, missing antimatter, and the birth of the universe. Some of them can be better answered by assuming the existence of aether and hypoatoms. Both were created during the inflation in the very early universe. While aether forms vacuum, hypoatoms, composed of both matter and antimatter and believed to be neutrinos, form all observable matter. In vacuum, aether exists between the particle-antiparticle dark matter form and the dark energy form in a dynamic equilibrium: A + A-bar = gamma + gamma. The same reaction stabilizes hypoatoms and generates a 3-dimensional sink flow of aether that causes gravity. Based on the hypoatom structure, the singularity does not exist inside a black hole; the core of the black hole is a hypoatom star or neutrino star. By gaining enough mass, ca. 3 X 1022 Msun, to exceed neutrino degeneracy pressure, the black hole collapses or annihilates into the singularity, thus turning itself into a white hole or a Big Bang. The universe is anisotropic and nonhomogeneous. Its center, or where the Big Bang happened, is at about 0.671 times the radius of the observable universe at the Galactic coordinates (l, b) ~ (286°, -42°). If we look from the Earth to the center of the universe, the universe is rotating clockwise.


aether; hypoatom; neutrino; inflation; gravity; negative pressure; dark energy; dark matter; black hole; quantum mechanics; matter-antimatter asymmetry; baryogenesis-through-leptogenesis; fabric of space; center of the universe; fate of the universe; general theory of relativity


Physical Sciences, Astronomy and Astrophysics

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 23 December 2021
Commenter: Jian-Bin Bao
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: While our model has not been changed, we made a major revision on our manuscript to provide more evidence to support our proposed model. We rewrote the “Hypoatoms”, “Neutrinos”, and “Fate and birth of the universe” sections, and added the “Stability of hypoatoms”, “Creation strategy”, “Black hole”, and “Where we are” sections. We also redrew Fig. 4, and added Figs. 3 and 6, Table 1, and some references.
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