Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

On the Fundamental Particles and Reactions of Nature

Version 1 : Received: 23 December 2020 / Approved: 28 December 2020 / Online: 28 December 2020 (13:15:23 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 20 December 2021 / Approved: 23 December 2021 / Online: 23 December 2021 (15:15:13 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 5 April 2022 / Approved: 7 April 2022 / Online: 7 April 2022 (11:05:53 CEST)

How to cite: Bao, J.; Bao, N. On the Fundamental Particles and Reactions of Nature. Preprints 2020, 2020120703 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202012.0703.v1). Bao, J.; Bao, N. On the Fundamental Particles and Reactions of Nature. Preprints 2020, 2020120703 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202012.0703.v1).


There are unsolved problems related to inflation, gravity, dark matter, dark energy, and the fate of the universe. Some of them can be better answered by assuming the existence of aether and hypoatoms. Both were created during the inflation in the very early universe. While aether forms vacuum, hypoatoms form all observable matter. In vacuum, aether exists between the particle-antiparticle form and the energy form in a dynamic equilibrium: A + A-bar = gamma + gamma, resulting in quantum phenomena and a character of negative pressure. The proposed hypoatom has an antimatter nucleus, with an equal mass of matter particles of aether in its perimeter, so the enigma of missing antimatter does not exist. At hypoatoms, the forward reaction of the aether annihilation dominates. With constant-density dark energy, the annihilation constantly consumes the aether in vacuum, producing a sink flow of aether that warps spacetime, and thus generates gravity and a dark matter halo in the vicinity of massive objects. The hypoatom is believed to be a neutrino n1, with a mass of 5 meV. Based on the hypoatom structure, singularities do not exist inside black holes; their cores are hypoatom stars or neutrino stars. By gaining enough mass, ca. , to exceed neutrino degeneracy pressure, a black hole collapses or annihilates into the singularity, thus turning itself into a white hole or a new Big Bang.


hypoatom; aether; inflation; gravity; negative pressure; dark energy; dark matter; neutrino oscillations; parity asymmetry; black holes; matter-antimatter asymmetry; the fabric of space; the fate of the universe



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