ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0023.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: serpentinization; elastic moduli; density; ultramafic rocks; oceanic lithosphere
Online: 2 October 2019 (06:28:08 CEST)
Understanding the physical properties of ultramafic rocks is important for evaluating awide variety of petrologic models of the oceanic lithosphere, particularly upper mantle and lower crust. Hydration of oceanic peridotites results in increasing serpentine content, which affects lithospheric physical properties and the global bio/geochemical cycles of various elements. In understanding tectonic, magmatic and metamorphic history of the oceanic crust, interpreting seismic velocities, rock composition and elastic moduli are of fundamental importance. In this study we show that as serpentine content increases, density decreases linearly with a slope of 7.85. We also correlate increase in serpentine content with a linear decline in shear, bulk and Young’s moduli with slopes of 0.48, 0.77, 0.45 respectively. Our results show that increase in serpentine content of lower crust and forearc mantle could decrease elasticity of lithospehere and result in break-offs. Therefore tectonic processes at peridotite rich slow spreading ridges may be strongly affected by serpentine content, particularly serpentinization may be responsible for discontinuities in thin crust, and formation of weak fault zones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0064.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: trace elements; hydrothermal sulfides; Laser Ablation ICP-MS; ultramafic-hosted; Central Indian Ridge
Online: 4 September 2018 (12:04:28 CEST)
The ultramafic-hosted Kairei vent field, located at 25°19′S, 70°02′E towards the northern end of the segment 1 of the Central Indian Ridge (CIR-S1) in a water depth of ~2450 m. This study aims to investigate the distribution of trace elements among sulfides of differing textures, and discuss the possible factors controlling the trace element distribution in those minerals by using LA-ICP-MS spot analyses as well as line scans. Our results show that there are distinct systematic trace element distributions throughout the different minerals：(1) Pyrite is divided into three types at the Kairei, including early-stage euhedral pyrites (py-I), sub-euhedral pyrites (py-II), and colloform pyrites (py-III). Pyrite is generally enriched in Mo, Au, As, Tl, Mn, and U. py-I have higher contents of Se, Te, Bi, and Ni, py-II are enriched in Au relative to py-I and py-III, but poor in Ni, py-III are enriched in Mo, Pb, and U but are poor in Se, Te, Bi, and Au. Variations in the concentrations of Se, Te, and Bi in pyrite are likely governed by the strong temperature gradient. Ni is generally lower than Co in pyrites, indicates that our samples precipitated at a high-temperature condition, whereas the extreme Co enrichment is likely from a magmatic heat source combined serpentinization reactions underlie the deposits. (2) Chalcopyrite is characterized by high concentrations of Co, Se, Te. The abundant of Se and Te in chalcopyrite cause by the high solubilities of Se and Te incorporated into chalcopyrite lattice at high temperature fluids. The concentration of Sb, As and Au is relatively low in chalcopyrite from the Kairei vent field. (3) Sphalerite from both the Zn-rich chimney is characterized by high concentrations of Sn, Co, Ga, Ge, Ag, Pb, Sb, As, and Cd, but depleted in Se, Te, Bi, Mo, Au, Ni, Tl, Mn, Ba, V, and U in comparison with the other minerals. The high concentration of Cd and Co is likely caused by the substitution of Cd2+ and Co2+ for Zn2+ in sphalerite. A high concentration of Pb accompanied by high Ag concentration in sphalerite indicating the Ag occurs in the microinclusions of Pb-bearing minerals such as galena. Au is generally low in sphalerite and strong correlate with Pb suggesting its presence in the microinclusions of galena. The strong correlation of As with Ge in sphalerite from Kairei suggests that they might precipitate under medium- to low-temperature with moderately reduced conditions. (4) Bornite-digenite is very low in most trace elements, except for Co, Se, and Bi. The high concentration of Se and Bi in all the sulfide minerals was observed in bornite-digenite can be explained by abundant Bi-selenide inclusions. Serpentinization in ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems might play an important role on Au enrichment in pyrite with low As contents. Compared with felsic-hosted seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) deposits, sulfide minerals from the ultramafic-hosted deposits show higher concentrations of Se and Te, but lower As, Sb, and Au concentrations attributed to the contribution of magmatic volatile input. Significant Se enrichment in chalcopyrite has been found from mafic-hosted SMSs indicate that the primary factor that controls the Se enrichment is its temperature-controlled mobility in fluids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0089.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: ASTER; TIR; geology; mineralogy; suture zone; quartz; feldspars; silicates; carbonates; sulfates; granitic rocks; felsic; ultramafic; mapping
Online: 9 August 2016 (10:10:41 CEST)
The mineralogical indices, e.g., Quartz Index (QI), Carbonate Index (CI), Mafic Index (MI) for ASTER multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) data have been applied to various geological materials. The indices are proved to be robust in extracting geological information at the local scale. Considering the relatively narrow spatial coverage of each ASTER scene compared to LANDSAT, many scenes are needed when mosaicking the images to be mapped at regional scales. We develop a system to search ASTER data for a target area given the vast and expanding ASTER data archive. The data is then conditioned, prioritized, and the indices are calculated before finally mosaicking the imagery. The maps of the indices covering the very wide region of the central Tibetan Plateau are produced with this system. The characteristic features of the indices relating to their geology in the study area are analyzed and discussed. Many interesting lithological and structural information that are not currently well understood in the central Tibetan Plateau, the highest and most extensive plateau in the world, with an average elevation of over 4,500 meters above sea level, for example, distributions of the mafic-ultramafic rocks along the suture zones, the quarzitic and marine sedimentology accreted to the Eurasian continent and sulfate layers related to the Tethys and neo-Tethys geological setting can be retrieved from the processed ASTER images.