ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0078.v1
Online: 5 October 2020 (12:05:09 CEST)
Three typhoons (Rammasun, Kalmaegi, and Sarika) travelled through the deployed stations in the northern South China Sea from 2014–2016. During the passage of typhoons, strong winds and vigorous currents resulted in horizontal displacement of buoy over 2000 m, vertical displacement of ropes on buoys as much as 200 m. The rectification can correct the warm anomaly to cool anomaly of temperature. These movements lead to biases of raw data, with temperature bias as much as 4°C, salinity as much as 0.05 psu, velocity bias as much as 0.4 m/s. The crosscheck of current velocity from different instruments shows that the bias of overlapping velocity and correlation coefficient after depth rectification obviously enhances. The observation shows that temperature cools 1.5 °C, and 0.1 psu saltier in maximum, the near-inertial current increases to 0.4 m/s in the upper layer. The inertial kinetic energy propagates downward with the upward phase, and the maximum depth can reach over 2000 m.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0460.v1
Online: 20 July 2020 (08:37:56 CEST)
Recently, the intensities of natural disasters have increased significantly owing to climate change and various other environmental factors, causing unprecedented damage. Measures must be established to reduce damage from large-scale natural disasters caused by the rapidly changing environment. The Japanese government published a hazard map manual in 2015 and obligates the creation of a hazard map as a measure to reduce high-scale storm surges. This manual presents a typhoon model based on a parametric model that is used to create a hazard map. The Myers model assuming concentric circles, which is primarily used in East Asia, is disadvantageous as it cannot consider geographic characteristics. Therefore, a new parametric model is necessary to calculate wind and pressure fields, which change according to geographic characteristics. To improve this limitation of the Myers model, we calculated the wind and pressure fields considering geographical effects by combining the Holland model, which can consider the size of a developing typhoon, and the Mascon model, which changes by geographic characteristics. To determine the gradient coefficient of the Holland model, the coefficient that changes every moment was calculated using grid point value data. The result indicated excellent reproducibility of storm surge height according to the geographic characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0230.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: concentric eyewall; typhoon; eyewall replacement; hydrometeor; potential vortex
Online: 19 November 2019 (10:18:02 CET)
To explore the characteristics of the concentric eyewall of a typhoon during its formation and replacement processes, with Super Typhoon Muifa in 2011 as the example case, the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mode was used to carry out a numerical simulation to reproduce the entire formation and replacement processes of the concentric eyewall. The physical quantities such as the tangential wind speed, radar echo, radial wind speed, vertical wind speed, and potential vortex were diagnosed and analyzed. The results of the analysis show that the outward expansion of the isovelocity in the lower troposphere was the early signal of the formation of the outer eyewall. After the outer eyewall formed, there was a center of second-highest tangential wind speed in the corresponding area. The second-highest wind speed increased as the strength of the outer eyewall increased, and the position of the second-highest wind speed center was retracted with the retraction of the outer eyewall. The tangential wind speed of the moat area was smaller than that corresponding to the concentric eyewall and this feature gradually disappeared with the increase of the height. The echo in the moat area was weak, and this characteristic was particularly evident when the moat area was relatively wide and the outer eyewall was relatively strong. With the formation and development of the outer eyewall, the intensity of the inflow in the boundary layer corresponding to the inner eyewall was reduced, the intensity of the outflow in the upper layers declined, and the intensities of the inflow and outflow corresponding to the outer eyewall were enhanced. After the second outer eyewall matured, there was a significant inflow in the upper layer of the moat area. Once the outer eyewall formed, a large amount of hydrometeors appeared in the corresponding area, and there was a strong ascending motion inside that area. The strength of the ascending motion and the content of hydrometeors increased as the outer eyewall increased. When the moat area was relatively wide, the divergent airflow generated by the developed outer eyewall in the upper layer would produce a significant descending motion in the moat area.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0333.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: atmospheric river; avalanche; debris flow; flooding; snow level; typhoon
Online: 24 May 2018 (05:53:39 CEST)
On 5-7 April 2018 a landfalling atmospheric river resulted in widespread heavy precipitation in the Sierra Nevada of California and Nevada. Observed snow levels during this event were among the highest snow levels recorded since observations began in 2002 and exceeded 2.75 km for 31 hours in the northern Sierra Nevada and 3.75 km for 12 hours in the southern Sierra Nevada. The anomalously high snow levels and over 80 mm of precipitation caused flooding, debris flows, and wet snow avalanches in the upper elevations of the Sierra Nevada. The origin of this atmospheric river was super typhoon Jelawat, whose moisture remnants were entrained and maintained by an extratropical cyclone in the northeast Pacific. This event was notable due to its April occurrence, as six other typhoon remnants that caused heavy precipitation with high snow levels (mean = 2.92 km) in the northern Sierra Nevada all occurred during October.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0240.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Deep Learning; Aerial photo; Typhoon Faxai; roof damage; detection; classification
Online: 26 April 2022 (10:58:36 CEST)
Following the occurrence of a typhoon, quick damage assessment related to residents can facilitate quick dispatch of house repair and disaster insurance works. Employing a deep learning method, this study used aerial photos of the Chiba prefecture obtained following the Typhoon Faxai in 2019 to automatically detect and evaluate the roof damage. This study comprised three parts: training deep learning model, detecting the roof damage using trained model, and classifying the level of roof damage. The detection object comprised roof outline, blue tarps, and roof completely destroyed. The roofs were divided into three categories: roof without damage, roof with blue tarps and roof completely destroyed. the F value obtained using the proposed method was higher than those obtained using other methods. In addition, it can be further divided into 5 levels from level 0 to 4. Finally, the spatial distribution of the roof damage was analyzed using ArcGIS tools. The proposed method is expected to provide certain reference for the real-time detection of the roof damage after the occurrence of a typhoon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ADIS; LSPIV; surface velocity; discharge measurement; flash flood; typhoon event
Online: 12 February 2018 (12:27:09 CET)
An automated discharge imaging system (ADIS), a non-intrusive and safe approach, was developed for measuring river flows during flash flood events. ADIS consists of dual cameras to capture complete surface images in the near and far fields. Surface velocities are accurately measured using the Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) technique. The stream discharges are then obtained from the depth-averaged velocity (based upon an empirical velocity-index relationship) and cross-section area. The ADIS was deployed at the Yu-Feng gauging station in Shimen Reservoir upper catchment, northern Taiwan. For a rigorous validation, surface velocity measurements were conducted using ADIS/LSPIV and other instruments. In terms of the averaged surface velocity, all measured results were in good agreement with small differences, i.e., 0.004 to 0.39 m/s and 0.023 to 0.345 m/s when compared to those from acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and surface velocity radar (SVR), respectively. The ADIS/LSPIV was further applied to measure surface velocities and discharges during typhoon events (i.e., Chan-Hom, Soudelor, Goni, and Dujuan) in 2015. The measured water level and surface velocity both showed rapid increases due to flash floods. The estimated discharges from ADIS/LSPIV and ADCP were compared, presenting good consistency with correlation coefficient R = 0.996 and normalized root mean square error NRMSE = 7.96%. The results of sensitivity analysis indicate that components till (τ) and roll (θ) of the camera are most sensitive parameter to affect the surface velocity using ADIS/LSPIV. Overall, the ADIS based upon LSPIV technique effectively measures surface velocities for reliable estimations of river discharges during typhoon events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0282.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: cyclone; defect; hurricane; likelihood of failure; storm damage; typhoon; urban ecology; urban forestry
Online: 21 May 2022 (11:03:18 CEST)
Urban trees are often more sun- and wind-exposed than their forest-grown counterparts. These environmental differences can impact how many species grow – impacting trunk taper, crown spread, branch architecture, and other aspects of tree form. Given these differences, windthrow models derived from traditional forest production data sources may not be appropriate for urban forest management. Additionally, visual abnormalities historically labeled as “defects” in timber production may not have a significant impact on tree failure potential. In this study, we look at urban tree failures associated with Hurricane Irma in Tampa, Florida, USA. We used spatial analysis to determine if patterns of failure existed among our inventoried trees. We also looked at risk assessment data to determine which visual defects were the most common and the most likely to be associated with branch or whole-tree failure. Results indicate that there was no spatial pattern associated with the observed tree failures – trees failed or withstood the storm as individuals. While some defects like decay and dead wood were associated with increased tree failure, other defects like weak branch unions and poor branch architecture were less problematic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0336.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: typhoon Durian; tropical cyclone; wind-pressure relationships; South China Sea; sensitivity analysis; WRF
Online: 26 April 2018 (08:59:09 CEST)
Typhoon Durian forming over the Western North Pacific Ocean and entering into the South China Sea (SCS), caused extreme and widespread damages in 2006. In this research, sensitivity analyses on different physical parameterization schemes of the Weather Research and Forecasting Atmospheric Model (WRF-ATM) have been utilized to study typhoon Durian. Model accuracy and performance testing were investigated with different initial conditions during the tropical cyclone simulation in the SCS. The initial and boundary conditions (IBCs) for all experiments were derived from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Re-Analysis Interim (ERAI), and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) with Final (FNL) analysis data compiled through the WRF-ATM model. The sensitivity analysis results indicated a major improvement for the cumulus scheme by using the Grell-Devenyi scheme along with the PBL scheme of Yonsei University, mixed-phase microphysics scheme of the WRF Single Moment 5-class and IBCs for ECMWF-ERAI of TC simulation under the context of Wind-Pressure Relationships. This predicted better track and intensity comparing with these of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. The results revealed that the TC track and intensity were well simulated by the WSM5-GD combination for the WRF-ATM model with an intensity error of 1.69 hPa for minimum surface level pressure, maximum wind speed of 1.83 knots and average track error of 25 km in 72 hours. The simulations showed that the potential track and intensity error decreased with the delayed IBCs, suggesting that the model simulation is more dependable when the coast is approached by the TC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0380.v3
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Infodemiology; COVID-19 infodemic; social contagion; collective perceptual bias; collective behavioral propensities; psychological typhoon eye effect
Online: 16 March 2020 (15:12:33 CET)
Less aligned emphasis has been given to the COVID-19 infodemic coordinating with the COVID-19 outbreak. Global profusion of tangled monikers and hashtags has found their ways in daily communication and contributed to backlash against Chinese. Official naming efforts against infodemic should be meet with a fair share of identification. Based on brief critical reviews on previous multifarious naming practices, we punctuate heuristic introspection in scientific conventions and sociocultural paradigms. Infodemiological analysis promises to articulate that people around the globe are divided in their favor stigmatized monikers in the public and scientific communities because of perceptual bias. There is no positive correlation between the degree of infection in their territories and collective perceptual bias to COVID-19. The official portfolio “COVID-19” and “SARS-CoV-2” has not become de facto standard usages, but full-fledged official names are excepted to duly contribute to the resilience of negative perceptual bias and collective behavioral propensities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0276.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: typhoon; sea surface temperature; sea surface height anomaly; sea surface cooling; warm eddy; cold eddy
Online: 15 August 2018 (15:41:28 CEST)
Studying the interaction between the upper ocean and the typhoons is crucial to improve our understanding of heat and momentum exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere. In recent years, the upper ocean responses to typhoons have received considerable attention. The sea surface cooling (SSC) process has been repeatedly discussed. In the present work, case studies were examined on five strong and super typhoons that occurred in 2016—LionRock, 1610; Meranti, 1614; Malakas, 1616; Megi, 1617; and Chaba 1618—to search for more evidence and new features of typhoon’s impact on the sea surface environment. The typhoon monitoring data from the Central Meteorological Observatory, the sea surface temperature (SST) data from satellite microwave and infrared remote sensing, and the sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) data from satellite altimeters were used to analyze in detail: the SSC features caused by typhoons, the relationship between the SSC and the typhoon travelling speed, and the variations in cold and warm eddies during typhoon passage. Results showed that: (1) SSC generally occurred during typhoon passage and the degree of SSC was always determined by the strength and the travelling speed of the typhoon, as well as the initial SST. (2) One day before or on the day of typhoon passage, the SSHA slightly increased due to low surface pressure. After the typhoon passed, the SSHA obviously decreased along with the SSC. The pre-existing positive SSHAs, which always represent warm eddies, decreased or disappeared during typhoon passage, whereas negative SSHAs or cold eddies were enhanced. (3) New cold eddies were generated, especially at the turning points of the typhoon path. The presence of warm eddies is suggested to have a strengthening effect on the typhoons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: maximum storm tide; two-dimensional tide-surge modeling system; east coast of Taiwan; intensity of typhoon; bathymetric rise
Online: 28 February 2017 (13:00:56 CET)
A typhoon-induced storm surge is considered one of the most severe coastal disasters in Taiwan. However, the combination of the storm surge and the astronomical tide called the storm tide can actually cause extreme flooding in coastal areas. This study implemented a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model to account for the interaction between tides and storm surges on the coast of Taiwan. The model was validated with observed water levels at Sauo Fish Port, Hualien Port, and Chenggong Fish Port under different historical typhoon events. The model results are in reasonable agreement with the measured data. The validated model was then used to evaluate the effects of the typhoon's intensity, bathymetric change, and the combination of the typhoon’s intensity and bathymetric change on the maximum storm tide and its distribution along the east coast of Taiwan. The results indicated that the maximum storm tide rises to 1.92 m under a typhoon with an intensity of a 100-year return period. The maximum storm tide increased from a baseline of 1.26 m to 2.63 m for a 90% bathymetric rise at Sauo Fish Port under the conditions of Typhoon Jangmi (2008). The combination of the intensity of a typhoon with a 100-year return period and a 90% bathymetric rise will result in a maximum storm tide exceeding 4 m, 2 m, and 3 m at Sauo Fish Port, Hualien Port, and Chenggong Fish Port, respectively. We also found that the distribution of the maximum storm tide on the east coast of Taiwan can expand significantly subject to the bathymetric rise.