ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0136.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: thioredoxin reductase; oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; theta burst stimulation; experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; rats
Online: 7 July 2020 (17:30:22 CEST)
Cortical theta burst stimulation (TBS) structured as intermittent (iTBS) and continuous (cTBS) could prevent the progression of the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The interplay of brain antioxidant defense systems against overproduction of reactive oxygen, nitrogen, and thiol species induced by EAE has not been entirely investigated, just as the effect of iTBS or cTBS on oxidative-nitrogen stress (ONS) in EAE rats. Dark Agouti strain female rats were tested for the effects of EAE and TBS. The rats were randomly divided into the following groups: C - control, EAE - rats immunized for EAE, CFA - rats immunized with Complete Freund's adjuvant; iTBS and cTBS groups, and EAE+iTBS and EAE+cTBS - health and EAE rats exposed to iTBS and cTBS, respectively; EAE+iTBSsh and EAE+cTBSsh - sham stimulated EAE rats with the same noise artifacts of iTBS and cTBS, respectively. Superoxide dismutase activity, levels of superoxide anion (O2•-), lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity were analyzed in rat spinal cords homogenates. The severity of EAE clinical coincided with the climax of ONS, based on the increase of superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation; depletion of total thiols, GSH and NADPH; and decrease of SOD activity. The TrxR imposed the most sensitive response against the applied central nervous system (CNS) stressors to rats. We concluded that the TrxR upregulation meritoriously compensates decreased ROS sequestrating and GSH systems in EAE. Both iTBS and cTBS modulate the biochemical environment at a distance from the area of stimulation against ONS, accomplish a similar effect on TrxR activity to EAE and healthy rats, and alleviate symptoms of EAE.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0046.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: oscillations, theta rhythm, gamma rhythm, coherence, temporal lobe epilepsy
Online: 2 December 2022 (10:11:23 CET)
The dentate gyrus (DG) is part of the hippocampal formation and is essential for important cognitive processes such as navigation and memory. The oscillatory activity of the DG network is believed to play a critical role in cognition. DG circuits generate three main rhythms: theta, beta, and gamma, which participate in the specific information processing performed by DG neurons. In the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), cognitive abilities are impaired, which may be due to drastic alterations in the DG structure and network activity during epileptogenesis. The theta rhythm and theta coherence are especially vulnerable in dentate circuits; disturbances in DG theta oscillations and their coherence may be responsible for general cognitive impairments observed during epileptogenesis. Some researchers suggested that the vulnerability of DG mossy cells is a key factor in the genesis of TLE, but others did not support this hypothesis. The aim of the review is not only to present the current state of the art in this field of research but to help pave the way for future investigations by highlighting the gaps in our knowledge to completely appreciate the role of DG rhythms in brain functions. Disturbances in oscillatory activity of the DG during TLE development are described in detail that may be a diagnostic marker in the treatment of this disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0350.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: theta rhythm; gamma rhythm; coherence; local field potential; hippocampus
Online: 14 May 2021 (15:48:27 CEST)
The brain rhythms are essential for information processing in neuronal networks. Oscillations recorded in different brain regions can be synchronized and have a constant phase difference, i.e. be coherent. Coherence between local field potential (LFP) signals from different regions in the brain may be correlated with the performance of cognitive tasks, from which it is concluded that these regions of the brain are involved in the task performance together. In this review, we discuss why coherence occurs and how it is coupled to the information transfer between different regions of the hippocampal formation. Coherence in theta and gamma frequency ranges is described since these rhythms are most pronounced during the hippocampus-dependent attention and memory. We review in vivo studies of interactions between different regions of the hippocampal formation in theta and gamma frequency bands. The kay provisions of the review: 1) coherence emerges from synchronous postsynaptic currents in principal neurons, occurring as a result of synchronization of neuronal spike activity; 2) synchronization of neuronal spike patterns in two regions of the hippocampal formation can be realised through induction or resonance; 3) coherence at a specific time point reflects the transfer of information between regions of the hippocampal formation, in particular, gamma coherence reflects the coupling of active neuronal ensembles. Overall, coherence is not an epiphenomenon, but an important physiological process that has certain generation mechanisms and performs important functions in information processing and transmission across the brain regions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0181.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Teevra cells; Komal cells; medial septum; freely behaving animals; ripples; delta; theta
Online: 13 May 2022 (07:52:48 CEST)
Hippocampus plays a crucial role in spatial and episodic memory. The acquisition of new memories is impossible without participation of the hippocampus. There are two main functional states or “modes” of the hippocampal activity, theta and non-theta state. They have different behavioral correlates and clearly different spectral content of the LFPs and neuronal spiking. Hippocampal theta state is present under active exploratory behavior, locomotion, cognitive situations requiring attention and REM sleep. Slow-wave sleep and quiet wakefulness (immobility, eating, grooming) represent the non-theta hippocampal state. The nodal point for the regulation of hippocampal activity is the MS. The activation or suppression of different types of MS cells appears to be responsible for controlling hippocampal theta and non-theta states. Functional coupling between MS neurons and hippocampal interneurons varies in a state-dependent manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0092.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: breath; respiration; synchronization; coupling,; EEG; theta-beta ratio; pranayama; meditation; attention; citta vritti
Online: 6 September 2021 (12:49:41 CEST)
Yogic and meditative traditions have long held that the fluctuations of the breath and the mind are intimately related. While respiratory modulation of cortical activity and attentional switching are established, the extent to which electrophysiological markers of attention exhibit synchronization with respiration is unknown. To this end, we examined 1) frontal midline theta-beta ratio, an indicator of attentional control state known to correlate with mind wandering episodes and functional connectivity of the executive control network; 2) pupil diameter (PD), a known proxy measure of locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic activity; and 3) respiration for evidence of phase synchronization and information transfer (multivariate Granger causality) during quiet restful breathing. Our results indicate that both TBR and PD are simultaneously synchronized with the breath, suggesting an underlying oscillation of an attentionally relevant electrophysiological index that is phase-locked to the respiratory cycle which could have the potential to bias the attentional system into switching states. We highlight the LC’s pivotal role as a coupling mechanism between respiration and TBR, and elaborate on its dual functions as both a chemosensitive respiratory nucleus and a pacemaker of the attentional system. We further suggest that an appreciation of the dynamics of this weakly coupled oscillatory system could help deepen our understanding of the traditional claim of a relationship between breathing and attention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0067.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Ih current, lamotrigine, HCN channels, theta rhythm, local field potentials, IPSCs, membrane excitability, action potential, membrane resonance.)
Online: 5 November 2021 (11:31:29 CET)
Theta oscillations generated in hippocampal (HPC) and cortical neuronal networks are involved in various aspects of brain function, including sensorimotor integration, movement planning, memory formation and attention. Disruptions of theta rhythms are present in individuals with various disorders, including epilepsy and Alzheimer’s disease. Theta rhythm generation involves a specific interplay between cellular (ionic) and network (synaptic) mechanisms. HCN channels are theta modulators, and several medications are known to enhance their activity. We investigated how different doses of lamotrigine (LTG), an HCN channel activator, and antiepileptic and neuroprotective agent, would affect hippocampal theta rhythms in acute HPC slices (in vitro) and anaesthetized rats (in vivo). Whole-cell patch clamp recordings revealed that LTG decreased GABAA-fast transmission in CA3 and CA1 cells, in vitro. In addition, LTG directly depressed CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neuron excitability. These effects were partially blocked by ZD 7288, a selective HCN blocker, and are consistent with decreased excitability associated with antiepileptic actions. Lamotrigine also depressed hippocampal theta oscillations in vitro, also consistent with its neuronal depressant effects. In contrast, it exerted an opposite, enhancing effect, on theta recorded in vivo. The contradictory in vivo and in vitro results indicate that LTG increases ascending theta activating medial septum/entorhinal synaptic inputs that over-power the depressant effects seen in hippocampal neurons. These results provide new insights into LTG actions and indicate an opportunity to develop more precise therapeutics for the treatment of dementias, memory disorders and epilepsy.