ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1558.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: glioblastoma; intranasal delivery; oncolytic adenovirus; XVir‐N‐31; shuttle cells
Online: 22 August 2023 (11:22:58 CEST)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive and lethal primary brain tumor with restricted treatment options and a dismal prognosis. Oncolytic virotherapy (OV) has developed as a promising approach for GBM treatment. However, reaching invasive GBM cells may be hindered by tumor-surrounding, non-neoplastic cells when the OV is applied intratumorally. In this study, using a rodent GBM model and immunofluorescence analyses, we investigated the intranasal delivery of the oncolytic adenovirus (OAV) XVir-N-31 via virus-loaded, optimized shuttle cells. Intranasal administration (INA) was selected due to its non-invasive nature and the potential to bypass the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Our findings demonstrate that INA of XVir-N-31 loaded shuttle cells successfully delivers OAVs to the core tumor and invasive GBM cells, significantly prolongs the survival of GBM bearing mice, induces immunogenic cell death and finally reduces tumor burden, all this highlighting the therapeutic potential of this innovative approach. Overall, this study provides compelling evidence for the effectiveness of INA of XVir-N-31 via shuttle cells as a promising therapeutic strategy for GBM. The non-invasive nature of INA of OV-loaded shuttle cells holds great promise for future clinical translation. However, further research is required to assess the efficacy of this approach to ultimately progress in human clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0395.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: autonomous shuttle; autonomous vehicle acceptance; intention to use; veterans
Online: 7 September 2023 (03:29:37 CEST)
Veterans face difficulties accessing vital health and community services, especially in rural areas. Autonomous vehicles (AVs) can revolutionize transportation by enhancing access, safety and efficiency. Yet, there is limited knowledge about how Veterans perceive AVs. This study fills this gap by assessing Veterans' AV perceptions before and after exposure to an autonomous shuttle (AS). Using a multi-method approach, 23 participants completed pre- and post-AS Autonomous Vehicle User Perception Survey (AVUPS), with 10 participants also taking part in post-AS focus groups. Following exposure to the AS, differences were observed for three out of the four AVUPS domains: an increase in Intention to Use (p < 0.01), a decrease in Perceived Barriers (p < 0.05), and an increase in Total Acceptance (p = 0.01); Well-being remained unchanged (p = 0.81). Feedback from focus groups uncovered six qualitative themes: Perceived Benefits (n=70), Safety (n=66), Shuttle Experience (n=47), AV Adoption (n=44), Experience with AVs (n=17), and Perception Change (n=10). This study underscores AVs' potential to alleviate transportation challenges faced by Veterans, contributing to more inclusive transportation solutions. The research offers insights for future policies and interventions aimed at integrating AV technology into the transportation system, particularly for mobility-vulnerable Veterans in rural and urban settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0149.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: lithium-sulfur batteries; Fe3C; 2D materials; shuttle effect; catalyst
Online: 10 April 2023 (05:01:50 CEST)
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regarded as an important candidate for the next-generation energy storage system due to its high theoretical capacity (1675 mAh g-1) and high energy density (2600 Wh kg-1). However, the shuttle effect of polysulfide seriously affects the cycling stability of the Li-S battery. Here, a novel Fe3C decorated folic acid-derived graphene-like N-doped carbon sheet (Fe3C@N-CS) was successfully prepared as the polysulfide catalyst to modify the separator of Li-S battery. The porous layered structures can successfully capture polysulfide as a physical barrier, and the encapsulated Fe3C catalyst can effectively trap and catalyze the conversion of polysulfide, thus accelerating the redox reaction kinetics. Together with the highly conductive networks, the cell with Fe3C@N-CS modified separator evinces superior cycling stability with 0.06% capacity decay per cycle at 1 C rate over 500 cycles and excellent specific capacity with an initial capacity of 1260 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C. Besides, at a high sulfur loading of 4.0 mg cm-2, the batteries also express superb cycle stability and rate performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0081.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Critical speed; exercise prescription; team sports; thresholds; shuttle running
Online: 2 February 2021 (10:05:08 CET)
The overarching purpose of this review was to highlight the utility of different aerobic field tests in terms of the parameters they provide, with a specific focus on shuttle running and all-out testing. Various field tests are discussed in detail and are categorised according to linear continuous running tests (e.g. 12-minute Cooper Test, University of Montreal Track Test [UMTT], 1200/1600 m time trials, 3-minute all-out test for running [3MT]), intermittent shuttle running tests (e.g. yo-yo inter-mittent recovery test level 1 [YYIR1], 30-15 intermittent fitness test [IFT], and the intermittent all-out shuttle test [IAOST]), and continuous shuttle running tests (e.g. 1.2 km shuttle run test [1.2SRT], maximal multi-stage 20-m shuttle test [MSR], 25-m, 30 m and 50-m 3-minute all-out shuttle test [AOST]). Readers will be guided through the theoretical and practical underpinnings of the 3MT methodology, where the all-out testing methodology is stationed within the testing paradigm, and how to practically implement and interpret the results thereof.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0134.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Carbon-coated separator; polysulfide; shuttle effect; lithium-sulfur batteries
Online: 12 March 2019 (10:02:03 CET)
Lithium sulfur (Li–S) batteries are expected to be very useful for next-generation transportation and grid storage because of their high energy density and low cost. However, their low active material utilization and poor cycle life limit their practical application. The use of a carbon-coated separator in these batteries serves to inhibit the migration of the lithium polysulfide intermediate and increases the recyclability. We report the extent to which the electrochemical performance of Li–S battery systems depends on the characteristics of the carbon coating of the separator. Carbon-coated separators containing different ratios of carbon black (Super-P) and vapor-grown-carbon-fibers (VGCF) were prepared and evaluated in Li–S batteries. The results showed that larger amounts of Super-P on the carbon-coated separator enhanced the electrochemical performance of Li–S batteries; for instance, the pure Super-P coating exhibited the highest discharge capacity (602.1 mAh g-1 at 150 cycles) with a Coulombic efficiency exceeding 95%. Furthermore, the separators with the pure Super-P coating had a smaller pore structure, and hence limited polysulfide migration, compared to separators containing Super-P/VGCF mixtures. These results indicate that it is necessary to control the porosity of the porous membrane to control the movement of the lithium polysulfide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0414.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: lithium sulfur battery; polysulfide; shuttle effect; dendrite; polyaniline; graphite; COMSOL
Online: 27 September 2022 (07:38:09 CEST)
To mitigate lithium dissolution and polysulfide shuttle effect phenomena in high energy lithium sulfur batteries (LISBs), a conductive, flexible, and easily modified polymer composite layer was applied on the anode. The polymer composite layer includes polyaniline and functionalized graphite. The electrochemical behavior of LISBs was studied by galvanostatic charge/discharge tests from 1.7 to 2.8 V up to 90 cycles and via COMSOL Multiphysics simulation software. No apparent overcharge occurred during the charge state, which suggests that the shuttle effect of polysulfides was effectively prevented. The COMSOL Multiphysics simulation provides a venue for optimal prediction of the ideal concentration and properties of the polymer composite layer to be used in the LISBs. The testing and simulation results determined that the polymer composite layer diminished the amount of lithium polysulfide species and decreased the amount of dissolved lithium ions in the LISBs. In addition, the charge/discharge rate of up to 2.0 C with a cycle life of 90 cycles was achieved. The knowledge acquired in this study was important not only for the design of efficient new electrode materials, but also for understanding the effect of the polymer composite layer on the electrochemical cycle stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0036.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Shewanella oneidensis MR-1; Goethite; Fe(III) reduction; Electron shuttle; Aniline
Online: 1 September 2023 (10:22:27 CEST)
Microbial-mediated biogeochemical cycling of iron is widespread in anaerobic environments such as sediments and deep Earth aquifers, and is one of the major pathways for metabolising iron in nature. Organic matter containing quinone groups can act as electron shuttles to transfer electrons between microorganisms and Fe(III) oxides, facilitating the biotransformation of iron; this process also influences the transport transformation of pollutants. In this paper, the reduction of Fe(III) oxides by aniline in the heterogeneous iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 mediated by the electron shuttle AQS was investigated. The results showed that aniline significantly promoted the reduction of Fe(III) by MR-1 in the AQS-mediated reaction, and the best Fe(III) reduction was achieved in the reaction group of "GT+MR-1+0.5mM AQS+3μM aniline", in which the Fe(II) production was significantly higher than that in the reaction groups of only microorganisms and no aniline reaction. The amount of Fe(II) produced was significantly higher than that of the microorganism-only and aniline-free reaction groups, and the addition of aniline also significantly increased the consumption of sodium lactate by MR-1 in the reaction system. The solid mineral Fe(II)-O content increased to 41.32% after the reaction. However, the structure of needle ferrite is relatively stable, and the surface morphology did not change significantly by SEM, and the generation of other secondary minerals was not observed in the XRD results. The results of this experimental study can help to understand the biogeochemical cycle of iron in multicomponent reactions and are of great significance for environmental management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0065.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: memory formation; moonlighting protein; protein-protein interaction; astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle
Online: 5 May 2020 (06:09:47 CEST)
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a molecular basis of memory formation. Here, we demonstrate that LTP critically depends on muscle fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase 2 (Fbp2) – a glyconeogenic enzyme and moonlighting protein protecting mitochondria against stress. We show that LTP induction regulates Fbp2 association with neuronal mitochondria and Camk2, and that the Fbp2-Camk2 interaction correlates with Camk2 autophosphorylation. Silencing of Fbp2 expression or simultaneous inhibition and tetramerization of the enzyme with a synthetic effector mimicking the action of physiological inhibitors (NAD+ and AMP) abolishes Camk2 autoactivation and blocks formation of the early phase of LTP and expression of the late phase LTP markers. Astrocyte-derived lactate reduces NAD+/NADH ratio in neurons and thus, diminishes the pool of tetrameric and increases the fraction of dimeric Fbp2. We therefore hypothesize that this NAD+-level-dependent increase of the Fbp2 dimer/tetramer ratio might be a crucial mechanism in which astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle stimulates LTP formation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0299.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Lactate Shuttle; Lactate; Exercise; Postabsorptive Metabolism; Postprandial Metabolism; Gene Adaptation; Muscle; Fiber Type; Gluconeogenesis; Glycogenolysis
Online: 13 September 2020 (16:31:28 CEST)
After a Century it is time to turn the page on understanding of lactate metabolism and appreciate that lactate shuttling as an important component of intermediary metabolism in vivo. Cell-Cell and intracellular Lactate Shuttles fulfill purposes of energy substrate production and distribution as well as cell signaling under fully aerobic conditions. Recognition of lactate shuttling came first in studies of physical exercise where roles of driver and recipient cells and tissues were obvious. Moreover, the presence of lactate shuttling as part of postprandial glucose disposal has been recognized. Mitochondrial respiration creates the physiological sink for lactate disposal in vivo. Repeated lactate exposure from regular exercise results in adaptive processes such as mitochondrial biogenesis and other healthful circulatory and neurological characteristic such as improved physical work capacity, metabolic flexibility and cognition. The importance of lactate and lactate shuttling in healthful living is further emphasized when lactate signaling and shuttling are dysregulated as occur in illness and injury. Like a Phoenix, lactate rises again in importance in 21st Century Biology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0239.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Begomoviruses; movement protein; nuclear shuttle protein; suppression of antiviral signaling; virus-host interactions; intracellular virus movement
Online: 4 July 2023 (13:46:28 CEST)
Begomoviruses, which belong to the Geminiviridae family, are intracellular parasites transmitted by whiteflies to dicotyledonous plants, significantly damaging agronomically relevant crops. These nucleus-replicating DNA viruses need to move intracellularly from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and then, like other plant viruses, spread systemically throughout the plant to cause dis-ease. The transport proteins of begomoviruses play a crucial role in recruiting host components for the movement of viral DNA within and between cells while exhibiting functions that suppress the host's immune defense. Pioneering studies on species of the Begomovirus genus have identified specific viral transport proteins involved in intracellular transport, cell-to-cell movement, and systemic spread. Recent research has primarily focused on viral movement proteins and their interaction with the cellular host transport machinery, significantly expanding our understanding of viral infection pathways. This review focuses on three main aspects: (i) the role of viral transport proteins, specifically movement proteins (MPs) and nuclear shuttle proteins (NSPs), (ii) their ability to recruit host factors for intra- and intercellular viral movement, and (iii) suppress antiviral immunity, with a particular emphasis on bipartite begomoviral movement proteins.