ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: behaviour change technique; medicine use optimisation; nudge; prescribing behaviour
Online: 15 April 2022 (14:27:22 CEST)
Providing healthcare workers with cost information about the medications they prescribe can influence their decisions, particularly when that information is provided at the very moment they are faced with a prescribing decision. The current study aimed to analyse the impact of nudges that presented cost information to prescribers through their organisation's electronic prescribing system. The nudges were co-created by the research team (composed of behavioural scientists) and the lead hospital pharmacist. One nudge provided simple cost information (percentage difference between two brands of Mesalazine – Asacol and Octasa). The second nudge provided the potential annual cost-saving that could result if the cheaper medication was selected across the organisation. While the statistical analyses revealed that these nudges were not effective, several administrative barriers were overcome, which may inform future research. For example, presenting aggregated cost information to the prescribers is possible even when the actual cost of medicine is confidential and can not be displaced. In addition, future research could reveal more behavioural factors that facilitate medication optimisation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0235.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Antimicrobial; Prescribing; Drug Resistance; Knowledge; Perception; Medical Students; Malaysia
Online: 16 March 2022 (14:44:53 CET)
Background: Worldwide, microbes are becoming more dangerous by acquiring virulent skills to adapt and develop antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This is a concern as this increases morbidity, mortality, and costs. Consequently, physicians need to be trained inappropriate prescribing, starting with medical students. Objective: Evaluate medical students' confidence in antimicrobial agent prescribing and drug resistance Methods: Cross-sectional study assessing medical students' knowledge, perception, and confidence in prescribing antimicrobial agents and drug resistance in a Malaysian University. A universal sampling method was used. Results: Most respondents believe that educational input regarding overall prescribing was sufficient. Regarding the principle of appropriate and accurate prescriptions, female medical students had less knowledge [Odds Ratio (OR)=0.51; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.25-0.99; p=0.050]. Year-IV and Year-V students had more excellent knowledge than Year-III students regarding confidence in antibiotic prescribing. Year-V students also showed appreciably higher confidence in the broad principles of prescribing, including infectious diseases, compared to those in other years. Conclusion: Overall, medical students, gain more excellent knowledge and confidence regarding prescribing, including antimicrobials, as their academic careers progress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0179.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: polypharmacy; duplicate therapy; digital health; inappropriate prescribing; contraindicated drugs; drug-drug interactions; pharmacoepidemiology
Online: 13 September 2022 (12:25:42 CEST)
The primary purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of drug-drug interaction (DDI) and duplicate therapy in chronic patients in a completely random study population engaged in digital health apps. In this cross-sectional study, polypharmacy checks for 100 completely anonymous patients were analyzed for the occurrence of DDIs and duplicate therapy. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with DDIs and duplicate therapy. DDIs and duplicate therapy prevalence were 34% and 33%, respectively. Chi-Square test discovered a significant association between the DDIs and duplicate therapy variables. Logistic regression models showed a strong association between the number of medications taken and higher odds of DDIs occurring in our population only. In conclusion, our study shows that polypharmacy is a determining factor for the occurrence of unwanted DDIs, and the prevalence of duplicate therapy and DDIs is around 33%, increasing an issue regarding patient safety and its burden to the healthcare system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0099.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: long-acting injectable; antipsychotic; depot; schizophrenia spectrum disorder; schizophrenia; schizoaffective; inpatient; prescribing pattern
Online: 7 March 2022 (12:33:39 CET)
Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) offer many benefits to patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD). They are used with very different frequencies due to questions of eligibility or patients’ and prescribers’ attitudes towards LAI use. We assessed the prescribing rates of LAIs in a large academic psychiatric hospital with public service mandate in Switzerland and compared them with other countries and health care systems. To our knowledge this study is the first to investigate the inpatient LAI-use in Europe. Medical records of all patients diagnosed with SSD discharged from the Clinic of Adult Psychiatry of the University Hospital of Psychiatry Zurich over a 12-month period from January to December 2019 were evaluated regarding the prescribed antipsychotics at the time of discharge. The rates of use of LAIs among all patients and among patients receiving LAI eligible antipsychotic substances were assessed retrospectively. We assessed records of 885 patients with SSD. Among all cases 13.9% received an LAI. Among patients who received antipsychotic medication that was eligible for LAI use 28.3% (n=434) received an agent as LAI. These included paliperidone palmitate (69.9%), aripiprazole monohydrate (14.6%), risperidone (4.9%) and first-generation LAIs (9.8%). Compared to international frequencies of LAI administration, the prescription rate of LAIs in SSD patients was low. Further studies will evaluate patient- and prescriber-related reasons for this low rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0061.v1
Subject: Keywords: pharmacists; hospital pharmacy; United Kingdom; discharge prescriptions; prescribing; consolidated framework for implementation research; implementation strategies
Online: 8 May 2017 (11:59:12 CEST)
The effective dissemination and implementation of health service interventions into practice requires a range of strategic and systematic approaches. This paper applies a conceptual implementation framework to the evaluation of a hospital-wide clinical pharmacy initiative, a redesign of the discharge medication prescription pathway. The influencing factors and strategies used to overcome potential negative influences are described and assessed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; AMR; Infections; antibiotics; inappropriate prescribing; healthcare pro-fessionals; education; training; antimicrobial stewardship programs; continuous professional development
Online: 2 June 2021 (09:58:36 CEST)
(1) Background: Factors reported in literature associated with inappropriate prescribing of antimicrobials, such as physicians with less experience, uncertain diagnosis, and patient caregiver influences on physicians' decisions. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance is critical for identifying emerging resistance patterns, developing, and assessing the effectiveness of mitigation strategies. Improvement in prescribing `antimicrobials would minimize the risk of resistance and, consequently, improve patients' clinical and health outcomes. The purpose of the study is to delineate factors associated with antimicrobial resistance, describe the factors influencing prescriber’s choice during prescribing of antimicrobial, and examine factors related to consequences of inappropriate prescribing of antimicrobial. (2) Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted among healthcare providers (190) in six tertiary hospitals in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. The research panel has developed validated and piloted survey specific with closed-ended questions. A value of P <0.05 was considered for statistical significance. All data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS version 23.0). (3) Results: 72.7% of the respondents have agreed that poor skills and knowledge are key factors that contribute to the inappropriate prescribing of antimicrobials. All the respondents acknowledged effectiveness and previous experience with the antimicrobial, and reading scientific materials (such as books, articles, and the internet) were key factors influencing physicians’ choice during antimicrobial prescribing. (4) Conclusion: The current study has identified comprehensive education and training needs for healthcare providers about antimicrobial resistance. Using antimicrobials unnecessarily, insufficient duration of antimicrobial use, and using broad spectrum antimicrobials, were reported to be common practices. Further, poor skills and knowledge were a key factor that contributed to the inappropriate use and overuse of antimicrobials and using antimicrobials without physician prescription (self-medication) were the key factors which contribute to AMR from participants’ perspectives. Furthermore, internal policy and guidelines are needed to ensure that the antimicrobials are prescribed in accordance with standard protocols and clinical guidelines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0008.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR); Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS); delayed/back-up prescribing; upper respiratory tract infections; developing countries; LMICs; Ghana
Online: 1 September 2020 (11:29:47 CEST)
This service improvement project was carried out at LEKMA Hospital, Ghana. Ghana has high levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). There is an urgent need to introduce models of care that optimize antibiotic prescribing. Methods Delayed / back-up prescribing is a strategy that could reduce antibiotic use in suspected upper respiratory tract infections. Four different models of delayed / back-up prescribing [no prescription; post-dated prescription (given to patient); post-dated prescription (forwarded to pharmacy); and follow-up appointment for reassessment after 3 days] were implemented in discussion between clinician and patient. Patients were contacted 10 days after their appointment to record compliance, check on their wellbeing, and rate their experience. Results Over a 3-month period (12/2019-02/2020), 142 patients were eligible for delayed / back-up prescribing. The most common clinical diagnoses were sore throat (102/140, 73%), common cold (22/140, 16%) and sinusitis (10/140, 7%). In total, 12 (9%) patients remained symptomatic at day 10, and only one individual in the entire cohort took antibiotics. Most patients (95%) rated their experience as good or very good. Conclusions Delayed / back-up prescribing models can lead to substantial reduction in antibiotic consumption amongst outpatient department patients with suspected upper respiratory tract infections. Delayed / back-up prescribing can be implemented safely in low and middle-income countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0129.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; antibiotic prescribing; acute non-complicated infections; primary care; data-based feedback; mixed logistic regression model; multi-faceted intervention
Online: 7 September 2021 (13:54:02 CEST)
The three-armed cluster-randomized trial ARena (Sustainable reduction of antibiotic-induced antimicrobial resistance) aimed to foster appropriate antibiotic use and reduce overprescribing in German ambulatory care to counter antibiotic resistance. Multi-faceted interventions targeted primary care physicians, teams and patients. This study examined effectiveness of the implementation program. ARena was conducted in 14 primary care networks with 196 practices. All arms received data-based feedback on antibiotics prescribing and quality circles. Arms II and III received different add-on components each. Primary outcome examined is the prescribing rate for systemic antibiotics for cases with non-complicated acute infections (upper respiratory tract, bronchitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis media). Secondary outcomes refer to prescribing of quinolones and guideline-recommended antibiotics. Based on pseudonymized quarterly claims data, mixed logistic regression models examined pre-post intervention antibiotic prescribing rate changes and compared to matched standard care. A significant rate reduction (arm I 11.7%; arm II 9.9%; arm III 12.7%) and significantly lower prescribing rates were observed for all arms (20.1%, 18.9% and 23.6%) compared to matched standard care (29.4%). Fluoroquinolone prescribing was reduced in all intervention arms and rates for recommended substances generally increased. No significant post-interventional difference between intervention arms was detected. Findings indicate implementation program impact compared to standard care. Trial registration: ISRCTN, ISRCTN58150046