REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0104.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: myeloperoxidase, leukocytes, inflammation, oxidative stress, chronic diseases, disease biomarker
Online: 15 February 2018 (16:54:25 CET)
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) belong to the family of heme containing peroxidases, produced mostly from polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The active enzyme (150 kD) is the product of MPO gene located on long arm of chromosome 17. The primary gene product undergoes several modifications like removal of introns and signal peptide and leads to the formation of enzymatically inactive glycosylated apoproMPO which complexes with chaperons, producing active proMPO by the insertion of heme moiety. The active enzyme is a homodimer of heavy and light chain protomers. This enzyme is released into extracellular fluid after oxidative stress and different inflammatory responses. MPO is the only type of peroxidase using H2O2 to oxidize several halides and pseudohalides to form different hypohalous acids. So the antibacterial activities of MPO involve the production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Controlled MPO release at the site of infection is of prime importance for its efficient activities. Any uncontrolled degranulation exaggerates the inflammation that can also lead to tissue damage even in absence of inflammation. Several types of tissue injuries and pathogenesis of several other major chronic diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, liver diseases, diabetes and cancer have been reported to be linked with myeloperoxidase derived oxidants. So the enhanced level of MPO activity is one of the best diagnostic tool of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers among these commonly occurring diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0316.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: ANCA-associated vasculitis; Proteinase 3; Myeloperoxidase; Clinical Phenotype; Outcome
Online: 17 August 2022 (09:58:51 CEST)
The traditional nomenclature system for classifying Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV), based on clinical phenotype, described Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA), Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA) and Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA) as distinct clinical entities. This classification has proved its expedience in clinical trials and every day clinical practice, yet, a substantial overlap in clinical presentation still exists, and often causes difficulties in prompt definition and clinical distinction. Additionally, new insights into the AAV pathogenesis point out that PR3 and MPO-AAV may not represent expressions of the same disease spectrum but rather two distinct disorders, as they display significant differences. Thus, it is supported that a classification based on ANCA serotype (PR3-ANCA, MPO-ANCA or ANCA-negative), could be more accurate and also closer to the nature of the disease, instead of the phenotype-based one. This review aims to elucidate the major differences between PR3 and MPO-AAV, in terms of epidemiology, pathogenesis, histological and clinical manifestations, and response to therapeutic approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0039.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Neutrophils; systemic deterioration; hyperactivation; neutrophil elastase; matrix metalloproteinases; myeloperoxidase
Online: 2 September 2021 (12:20:02 CEST)
Various studies have addressed the role of neutrophils in cancer wherein the focus has been drawn on the elevated neutrophil count in blood or at tumor loci. However, cancer has a systemic impact which targets various organs thus challenging the overall physiology of the host. So, it is worthwhile to explore whether and how neutrophils contribute to systemic deterioration in cancer. To discern the systemic role of neutrophils, we monitored their number and function at different stages of tumor growth in Dalton’s lymphoma mice model. Notably, we observed a gradual increase in neutrophil count in blood and their infiltration in vital organs of tumor bearing mice. In parallel, we observed damaged histoarchitecture with significant alterations in biochemical parameters that aggravated with tumor progression. We next examined systemic impact of neutrophil by assessing neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-8 and MMP-9) wherein we found their upregulated expression and activity in tumor condition. Taken together, our results demonstrate high infiltration and hyperactivation of neutrophils which possibly account for gradual systemic deterioration during cancer progression. Our findings thus implicate neutrophils as a potential therapeutic target that may help to reduce the overall fatality rate of cancer.