ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1522.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: urban microclimate; computational fluid dynamics; CFD; microclimate simulation; ENVI-met; urban mobility; urban morphology; microclimate mitigation; outdoor comfort; climate adaptation
Online: 21 June 2023 (10:07:10 CEST)
This paper investigates urban microclimate in relation to the typical major streets and mobility layout in Turin, i.e. boulevards with lateral minor roads, called “controviali”, an almost unique urban mobility layout. The aim is to examine the possibility of intervention in relation to the type and scope of mobility for microclimate mitigation and climate adaptation purposes. To this, this paper evaluates to which extent urban morphology and mobility features contribute to determining microclimatic conditions, to finally identify site-specific prioritised strategies to cope with its mitigation. This research is structured in two phases. The first phase is dedicated to urban-scale analysis of the streets with “controviali”, resulting in the creation of a database containing their properties and typology, to finally derive six clusters of boulevards. The second phase involves the selection of one representative case study per cluster and simulation of their microclimate conditions, performed by the software ENVI-met. The results are discussed in relation to the parameters proven in the prior literature review to have a major impact on the microclimate. The assessment of the results indicated which elements affect the climatic conditions the most, allowing for the proposal of different prioritised mitigation strategies in the conclusion.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: cave; microclimate; monitoring; sustainable management; Carpathians; Romania
Online: 4 January 2021 (10:26:38 CET)
(1) Background: Show caves are unique natural attractions and touristic traffic can trigger their degradation within a very short time. There are no universal solutions to counter the effects of the touristic impact upon cave environment and both protection protocols and management plans have to be established on a case-by-case basis; (2) Methods: The study includes four show caves from the Romanian Carpathians, where monitoring of the number of visitors, paralleled by the monitoring of the main physico-chemical parameters of the air and water (CO2, temperature, humidity, drip rate, conductivity, and pH) was implemented; (3) Results and Conclusions: The results of the study has: (i) established a monitoring protocol to be applied to each of the four show caves; (ii) established a set of basic principles to be enforced by the management of show caves; (iii) issued a set of preventive measures and instructions to be followed by the personnel and stakeholders of the caves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0586.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: NVOC; phytoncide; bamboo grove; monoterpene; microclimate; regression analysis
Online: 24 March 2021 (13:10:25 CET)
After the COVID-19 outbreak, more and more people are seeking physiological and psychological healing by visiting the forest as the time of stay-at-home became longer. NVOC, a major healing factor of forests, has several positive effects on human health, and this study researched about the NVOC characteristics of bamboo groves. The study revealed that α-pinene, 3-carene, and camphene were the most emitted, and the largest amount of NVOC was emitted in the early morning and late afternoon in bamboo groves. Furthermore, NVOC emission was found to have normal correlations with temperature and humidity, and inverse correlations with solar radiation, PAR and wind speed. A regression analysis conducted to predict the effect of microclimate factors on NVOC emissions resulted in a regression equation with 82.9% explanatory power and found that PAR, temperature, and humidity had a significant effect on NVOC emission prediction. In conclusion, this study investigated NVOC emission characteristics of bamboo groves, examined the relationship between NVOC emissions and microclimate factors and derived a prediction equation of NVOC emissions to figure out bamboo groves' forest healing effects. These results are expected to provide a basis for establishing more effective forest healing programs in bamboo groves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0220.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: agroforestry; Populus; Ulmus; cotton; corn; microclimate; evapotranspiration; irrigation
Online: 22 June 2019 (11:30:43 CEST)
Across Central Asia, agriculture largely depends on irrigation due to arid and semi-arid climatic conditions. Water is abstracted from rivers, which are largely fed by glacier melt. In the course of climate change, glaciers melt down so that a reduced glacier volume and reduced water runoffs are expected being available for irrigation. Tree wind breaks are one option to reduce water consumption in irrigated agriculture and build resilience against climate change. This paper therefore assessed water consumption of major crops (cotton, wheat, corn, rice, potato, and barley) in Kyrgyzstan and adjacent areas in combination with tree wind breaks. Crop water consumption was assessed through the Penman Monteith approach. Tree wind break types investigated were single rows from poplars and multiple rows with undergrowth by elm and poplar, respectively. Tree water consumption was determined through sapflow measurements. Seasonal ETo for field crops was 876 mm to 995 mm without wind breaks and dropped to less than half through multiple row wind breaks with undergrowth (50 m spacing). Tree water consumption was 1125 mm to 1558 mm for poplar and 435 mm for elm. Among the wind break crop systems, elm wind breaks resulted in highest reductions of water consumption, followed by single row poplars, at spacing of 50 m and 100 m, respectively. Yet, elm grows much slower than poplar so that poplars might be more attractive for farmers. Furthermore, single row wind breaks might by much easier to be integrated into the agrarian landscape, as they consume less space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0654.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Thermal Comfort; Outdoor Space; Microclimate Simulation; Street Orientation; Physiological Equivalent Temperature
Online: 27 May 2021 (08:02:05 CEST)
Lack of due attention to the orientation of streets and establishment of urban blocks without regard for climatic characteristics and conditions of the environment have an adverse effect on thermal comfort in open urban spaces. Construction of new settlements without taking into account climatic requirements undermines thermal comfort for pedestrians and other users, especially in cold regions. Considering the coldness of the region under study and the significance of the orientation of streets in absorbing radiation and providing heat to outdoor urban spaces, this study investigates the effect of the orientation of streets on microclimatic comfort in one of the residential towns of Hamadan City in Iran. For this purpose, microclimate simulation was performed using ENVI-met software. A residential block with four different orientations (the most common orientations of its surrounding buildings) were simulated in the coldest day of winter and the hottest day of summer. The results suggest that streets have different thermal behavior in different orientations. Orientation affects mean radiant temperature (Tmrt), the duration of exposure to direct sunlight, wind speed, and physiological equivalent temperature (PET), which are all important factors in thermal comfort. Based on these findings, north-south streets in Hamedan receive more radiant temperature during winter compared to other simulated orientations and provide more desirable thermal comfort. The average PET value on a winter day at a point on the north-south passage was 4.5-8 °C warmer than other orientations. In summer, streets with intercardinal orientations (i.e., northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast) provided the lowest PET (about 2 °C cooler than other orientations) and better thermal comfort
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0613.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Green Infrastructure (GI); Human Thermal Comfort (HTC); ENVI-met; microclimate; modelling
Online: 24 November 2020 (10:58:39 CET)
This study assesses Human Thermal Comfort in two selected areas: a Green Infrastructure (GI) area represented by a garden and a high-rise building area, in the Central Business District (CBD) of Melbourne, Australia. Three-dimensional microclimatic modelling software, ENVI-met version 4 was used to simulate the microclimate. The indices of Predicted Mean Vote (PMV), Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) and Universal Temperature Climate Index (UTCI) were used to quantify the level of thermal comfort in the research areas. The simulation results showed that at midday, the difference in temperature between the garden area and the high-rise building area was approximately 1°C. Increasing temperatures at midday led to a change in the level of thermal comfort for both the areas, even though it was not significant. In general, the thermal perception in the GI area was slightly ‘cooler’ than in the high-rise building area. The results of the study indicated the important role of GI in improving the thermal comfort in urban areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0881.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: silvopastoral systems; regeneration growth; daily stem dynamics; dendrometers; microclimate; soil water content
Online: 25 April 2023 (04:05:44 CEST)
Regeneration is crucial for forest continuity in natural and managed stands. Analyzing intra-annual dynamics improves the understanding between growth and climate, identifying survival thresholds. The objective was to determine microclimate constraints (rainfall, air and soil temperatures) over Nothofagus antarctica regeneration growing at closed, open, and edge forests in Patagonia. We measured stand characteristics (forest structure, understory, soil properties, animal use), microclimate, and daily growth of regeneration using dendrometers (n = 6) during two growing seasons. We found significant differences in the studied variables (e.g. overstory, light, soil, understory, animal use). These changes defined microclimate across overstory gradient (e.g. soil moisture), influencing the daily growth across seasons (lag, exponential, stationary). Rainfall influenced more than temperature. Daily growth in closed forests indicating shrinkage (-0.0082 mm day-1 without rain, and -0.0008 mm day-1 with 0.0-0.2 mm day-1 rainfall), while above 0.2 mm day-1 rainfall, growth always increased. Open forests presented shrinkage during days without rain (-0.0051 mm day-1), showing positive growths according rainfall. Edge forests always presented positive daily growths. The resilience of regeneration under these changed conditions was related with overstory. Main outputs indicated that regeneration was vulnerable during non-rainy days, suggesting the needs of long-term monitoring to develop better silvicultural proposals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0008.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: speleothem corrosion; undersaturated drip spots; carbon dioxide; cave microclimate; karst water geochemistry
Online: 1 October 2021 (11:35:01 CEST)
Speleothems have proven to be one of the most reliable terrestrial archives for palaeoclimate research. However, due to the complexity of karst systems, long-term monitoring and high-resolution analyses of the cave atmosphere and water geochemistry have become essential to better constrain the factors that control calcite growth and how geochemical palaeoclimate proxies are encoded into speleothems. While calcite precipitation incorporates the palaeoclimate signals into the speleothem fabric, certain conditions in caves can favour dissolution, which may form hiatuses or even destroy these signals. In extreme cases, in-cave dissolution by dripwater can form cup-shaped features (i.e., corrosion cups), which were the main focus of this study. The study site in Postojna Cave, Slovenia, was investigated through cave climate monitoring and drip and cup water sampling, which took place during 2017–2021. We found that the cups are fed by low calcium drips as the consequence of the thin vadose zone above the cave. Due to the specific configuration of airflow pathways, the study site accumulates high levels of CO2 (>10,000 ppm), which shifts low calcium dripwater into undersaturation. This causes dissolution on rock surfaces and speleothems on the cave floor. The results of this study have broader significance in addressing the suitability of cave environments and speleothems used in paleoclimate research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0008.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: microclimate; water table depth; climate change impacts; cape restionaceae; species distribution modelling; maxent
Online: 2 December 2019 (10:14:59 CET)
The Cape Restionaceae species, an endemic of the Fynbos Biome, is threatened by urbanization, alien plant invasion, agricultural expansion, and groundwater extraction. This is further worsened by the semi-arid conditions and hydrological variability factors, which influences species niche dynamics. Therefore, it is important to assess and monitor the Restionaceae species for preservation of their endemism and richness. This study models the hydrological niche and distribution changes of Restionaceae species at the New Years Peak (NYP) at microclimate level for biodiversity conservation. MaxEnt modelling and GIS analytical approaches were applied at various stages in niche modelling process as follows: (i) microclimatic input raster layers’ generation, (ii) ecological modelling and hydrological niche manipulation, and (iii) spatial distributional change mapping. The hydrological niches of the Restionaceae were effectively examined under the recent climate and compared with RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 future climate scenarios as the microscale environmental inputs. The results showed that most of the studied Restionaceae species positioned themselves along a hydrological gradient. Each species tolerated a range of hydrological conditions, which formed their hydrological niche. Changing climate would cause both positive and negative species range shifts. The study assists in plant species conservation and future climate change impact analysis on endangered plant species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0064.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Greenhouse , microclimate , Modelling , fuzzy controller , Optimization , Solar Energy , Energy saving , Climate Model ,Greenhouse effect , Temperature
Online: 21 July 2016 (09:44:16 CEST)
Agricultural greenhouse is largely answered in the agricultural sphere, despite the shortcomings it has, including overheating during the day and night cooling which sometimes results in the thermal inversion mainly due to its low inertia. The glasshouse dressed chapel is relatively more efficient than the conventional tunnel greenhouse. Its proliferation on the ground is more or less timid because of its relatively high cost[14-22]. Agricultural greenhouse aims to create a favorable microclimate to the requirements of growth and development of culture, from the surrounding weather conditions, produce according to the cropping calendars fruits, vegetables and flower species out of season and widely available along the year. It is defined by its structural and functional architecture, the quality thermal, mechanical and optical of its wall, with its sealing level and the technical and technological accompanying[12-13]. The greenhouse is a very confined environment, where multiple components are exchanged between key stakeholders and them factors are light, temperature and relative humidity. This state of thermal evolution is the level sealing of the cover of its physical characteristics to be transparent to solar, absorbent and reflective of infrared radiation emitted by the enclosure where the solar radiation trapping effect otherwise called "greenhouse effect" and its technical and technological means of air that accompany. The socio-economic analysis of populations in the world leaves appear especially the last two decades of rapid and profound transformations These changes are accompanied by changes in eating habits, mainly characterized by rising consumption spread along the year. To effectively meet this demand, greenhouse-systems have evolved, particularly towards greater control of production conditions (climate, irrigation, ventilation techniques, CO2 supply, etc ...). Technological progress has allowed the development of greenhouses so that they become increasingly sophisticated and of an industrial nature (heating, air conditioning, control, computer, regulation, etc ...). New climate driving techniques have emerged, including the use of control devices from the classic to the use of artificial intelligence[10-11] such as neural networks and / or fuzzy logic, etc... As a result, the greenhouse growers prefer these new technologies while optimizing the investment in the field to effectively meet the supply and demand of these fresh products cheaply and widely available throughout the year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0252.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Curculionidae; Cossoninae; Rhyncolini; Rhyncolina; taxonomy; new species; mature larva; morphology; host plant; Cape Verde; biogeography; microclimate; species competition
Online: 29 March 2018 (14:53:47 CEST)
The genus Aphanommata in the Old World is reviewed. Aphanommata kuscheli sp. nov. from São Nicolau and A. strakai sp. nov. from Fogo (both Cape Verde islands) are described. Aphanommata euphorbiarum (Wollaston, 1867) from Santo Antão in the Cape Verde islands is redescribed and its lectotype is designated. All three Aphanommata species from the Cape Verde islands as well as A. filum (Mulsant & Rey, 1859) from Old World are diagnosed, illustrated, and keyed. Mature larva of A. kuscheli sp. nov. is described, larval morphology is discussed and the current state of knowledge about immature stages of Cossoninae is summarized. Vertical and inter-insular distributional pattern of Cape Verde Aphanommata and Pselactus is reviewed and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0856.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: plants; living wall; cooling effect; temperature; microclimate; vertical greenery systems; urban green infrastructure; climate change adaption; temperature sensor; thermal imaging
Online: 12 June 2023 (16:03:23 CEST)
Living walls (LWs) are a climate change adaptation strategy for cities, as they have a cooling effect. Previous studies of the cooling effect of LWs were carried out in different climatic zones. These studies differed in their experimental design, or simulated data via models. Plants’ cooling capacity is explained by shading and transpiration, and depends on physical plant parameters, environmental factors, and system-related influences. A three-year-long trial was carried out between 2017 and 2019 at an experimental garden in Geisenheim, Germany. We chose a textile-based LW system with high water demand and plants from a wet/fresh habitat. We assumed that this would achieve high evaporative cooling. The experimental setup included four experimental walls which were exposed to the north, south, east, and west, respectively. The plant choice was divided into three plant mix variants (Cascade, Ground cover, and Meadow) and a Control with no vegetation. We measured the temperature with sensors and a thermal imaging (IR) camera in different setups. The main results were that the measured vegetation temperature (TV) depends on air temperature (TA), measurement position, plant mix variant, and plant species. We could detect the cooling effect only at a small distance from the LW (microclimatic). Our methodological approaches should be continued in further studies.