REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0008.v1
Online: 1 October 2020 (09:10:35 CEST)
The ethics of invertebrate research have largely been ignored compared to the consideration of higher order animals, but more recent focus has questioned this trend. Using biohybrid robotic jellyfish as a case study, we examine the ethical considerations of invertebrate work and provide recommendations for future guidelines. This paper starts with an overview of philosophical views of animal ethics, the current state of knowledge for invertebrate pain and nociception, and current ethical guidelines. Next, we delve into the case study and analogous precedents. Specifically, in prior studies, we developed biohybrid robotic jellyfish, which modified live moon jellyfish with microelectronic swim controllers for future applications in ocean monitoring. Although jellyfish possess no central nervous system, pain receptors, or nociceptors, we closely monitored their stress responses, using the precautionary and minimization principles in consideration of the 4Rs: reduction, replacement, refinement, and reproducibility. We also discuss ethical considerations related to our studies and suggest that public opinion of invertebrate research relies heavily on repugnance, including fears of ‘playing God’ or limiting the ‘free will’ of animals. These issues are also examined for prior bioethics cases, such as the RoboRoach, cyborg beetle, ‘microslavery’ of microbes, biohybrid robots incorporating tissues from sea slugs (which are known to possess nociceptors), and other tissue cutting experiments involving soft-bodied invertebrates. However, biohybrid robotic jellyfish pose further ethical questions of potential ecological consequences as ocean monitoring tools, such as the impact of electronic waste in the ocean. To conclude these evaluations, we recommend that publishers require brief ethical statements for invertebrate research, which can include the following: a scientific justification for the research, discussion of the 4Rs, and cost-benefit analysis. We also delineate the need for more research on pain and nociception in invertebrates, which can then be used to revise or validate current research standards. These actions provide a stronger basis for the ethical study of invertebrate species, with implications for individual, species-wide, and ecological impacts on animals, as well as for interdisciplinary studies in science, engineering, and philosophy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0201.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: wastewater; valuable algal biomass; nitrogen; phosphorus; jellyfish
Online: 14 January 2022 (11:18:16 CET)
The introduction of organic and inorganic substances to the environment is a result of human activities such as agriculture, domestic and industrial wastewater which leads to pollution. Treatment processes of these wastewaters are being conducted globally to eliminate easily settled materials and recover nutrients in an attempt to release clear and apparently clean effluent into natural waters. Lack of removing inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients is the greatest cause of eutrophication in water bodies which inhibits the life of other organisms as well as pose a threat to human life and loss of the economy. Different technologies have been applied and are being developed to recover nutrients as well as heavy metals from wastewater to meet the permissible limits before discharging effluents. Wastewater treatment using microalgae offers an opportunity to provide tertiary bio-treatment and production of valuable biomass. Microalgae use the available inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth which are then harvested for various uses. Additionally, they have the ability to remove heavy metals and some toxic compounds. The main specific microalgae species in this study is the Chlorella sorokiniana with the Aequorea victoria jellyfish This paper reviews some of the wastewater treatment processes and focus on the use of microalgae and some of the shortcomings of the technologies and how they can be improved to achieve maximum nutrient recovery economically with low energy demand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0463.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: jellyfish; sting; first aid; vinegar; seawater; nematocyst discharge; Pelagia noctiluca; Carybdea marsupualis.
Online: 17 June 2021 (14:39:50 CEST)
Although the jellyfish species that inhabit the Mediterranean coastal waters are not lethal, their sting can cause severe pain and systemic effects that pose a health risk to humans. Despite the frequent occurrence of jellyfish stings, currently no consensus exists regarding the most appropriate first aid protocol among the scientific community. Over the years, several different rinse solutions have been proposed of which vinegar, or acetic acid, is one of the most noticeable as a rinse solution with efficacy data published. We investigated the effect of vinegar and seawater on the nematocyst discharge process in species representative of the Mediterranean region such as Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) and Carybdea marsupialis (Cubozoa) by means of: (1) direct observation on the nematocyst discharge by light microscope (Tentacle solution assay) and (2) the quantification of hemolytic area (Tentacle skin blood agarose assay). The nematocyst discharge of both species was not stimulated by seawater, and it was classified as a neutral solution. In P. noctiluca, vinegar produced nematocyst discharge per ser while inhibiting the nematocyst discharge of C. marsupilais. These results suggest that the use of vinegar cannot be universally recommended. While in case of a cubozoan C. marsupialis sting, the inhibitory effect of vinegar makes it the best rinse solution par excellence, in case of a scyphozoan P. noctiluca sting, its application can be counterproductive, worsening the pain and discomfort of the stung area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0481.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Irukandji syndrome; box jellyfish; CSL antivenom; nematocyst extracts; antigenicity; human sera; human antibodies
Online: 29 August 2018 (05:23:55 CEST)
Carukia barnesi (Cb), Malo kingi (Mk) and Chironex fleckeri (Cf) are dangerous Australian box jellyfish species that provoke distinct and not well understood envenomation syndromes. Specifically, Cb and Mk are small, rare and able to induce a systemic syndrome of generalised muscle pain and catecholamine excess termed “Irukandji syndrome”; Cf has been widely regarded as one of the most venomous organisms in the animal kingdom causing severe sting site pain combined with potentially lethal cardiotoxicity. Building on past studies of major chirodropid and carybdeid species venoms, this study compared the utility of various cubozoan specific antibody reagents to better define the relationships between venom proteins from both exemplar Irukandji species (Cb and Mk) and the archetype C. fleckeri box jellyfish. With the aid of commercial ovine derived Cf-specific antivenom, mouse antibodies reactive to Cb and Mk and rabbit antibodies specific to two Cf toxins (CfTX-1 and 2), as well as human sera, the cross-reactivity of jellyfish species-specific polyclonal antibodies against these three cubozoan venoms was investigated. Immunoblot assays revealed distinc levels of immune recognition across the three species, indicating that Mk specific reagents may bind both Irukandji and Cf venoms. Irukandji venom appears to be antigenic with the exception of a few proteins in the range of 43/46 kDa maybe homologous to CfTX-1 and 2. The implications of such antibody binding for future antivenom development require further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0481.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Meta-heuristic algorithm; Jellyfish search algorithm; Sine and cosine learning factors; Local escape operator; Opposition-based learning
Online: 26 December 2022 (09:06:46 CET)
Jellyfish search (JS) algorithm impersonates the foraging behavior of jellyfish in the ocean. It is a new developed meta-heuristic algorithm that solves complex and real world optimization problems. The global explore capability and robustness of JS are strong, but JS still has great development space in solving complex optimization problems with high dimensions and multiple local optima. Therefore, an enhanced jellyfish search (EJS) algorithm is developed in this study, and three improvements are made: (i) By adding sine and cosine learning factors, the jellyfish can learn from both random individual and best individual during Type B motion in swarm to enhance the optimization capability and convergence speed; (ii) Adding local escape operator can skip local optimal trap and boost the exploitation ability of JS; (iii) Opposition-based learning operator and quasi-opposition learning operator can increase and strengthen the population distribution more diversified, and better individuals are selected from present and new opposition-solution to participates in the next iteration, which can boost the solution’s quality, meanwhile convergence speed is fasted and its precision is increased. In addition, the performance contrast of the developed EJS and some previous outstanding and advanced methods are evaluated on CEC2017, CEC2019 test suite and six real engineering example of case. It is demonstrated that EJS algorithm escaped the trap of local optimum, enhanced the solution’s quality and the calculation speed. What’s more, the practical engineering applications of EJS algorithm also verify its superiority and effectiveness in solving both constrained and unconstrained optimization problems, and it stretched one’s mind for solving such optimization problems.